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[499] Serv. says, “Quattuor erant apud Romanos quae ad honorificentiam pertinebant, equo desilire, caput aperire, via decedere, adsurgere: hoc etiam praecones magistratus praeeuntes clamare dicebantur.” ‘Regina’ points the contrast, and so intensifies the honour: it also seems to mean that as queen she set the example which the others followed.

[501] Defluxit seems to denote ease and grace in alighting. The other instances quoted of the word, including that from Furius in Macrob. Sat. 6. 4, all have to do with persons falling to the ground involuntarily, and so are more germane to v. 828 below, “Ad terram non sponte fluens.” Pal. and originally Gud. seem to repeat ‘desiluit’ from the former verse.

[502] ‘If the brave may justly feel confidence in themselves.’ Not unlike Il. 10. 220, Νέστορ, ἔμ᾽ ὀτρύνει κραδίη καὶ θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ. Il. 13. 73 foll., which the commentators comp., has no great resemblance.

[503] Audeo as well as ‘promitto’ with ‘occurrere.’ ‘Promitto’ with pres. inf. occurs repeatedly in Plautus: see Forc. So 4. 487, where however ‘se’ is expressed. ‘Turmae’ in its strict sense. Camilla undertakes to engage the whole army: but the cavalry would naturally bear the brunt of the encounter. Horses had been given to the Trojans by Evander, 8. 551. Rom. has ‘turmis.

[504] Sola for “me solam,” like “sperasti tacitus decedere” 4. 306, where as here the anomaly is mitigated by the nom. and verb being in different clauses. “Ire contra” v. 438, “ire obvius” 10. 770. Here the two are combined pleonastically. ‘Contra’ occurs also 10. l. c., but as an adverb.

[505] Prima: she wishes to encounter the enemy before they reach the city. ‘Manu’ pleonastic, as in G. 3. 32 &c.

[506] Pedes, “cum peditibus,” Forb. “Servare muros” 9. 43, 161.

[507] Med. and one of Ribbeck's cursives originally had ‘fixis,’ whence Heins. conj. ‘oculisfixis.’ ‘Fixit,’ the reading of one or two MSS., found its way into one or two of the early editions. ‘In virgine’ like “in Turno” 10. 446.

[508] Decus as an address, 9. 18., 12. 142. Wagn. argues for the omission of a comma after ‘virgo,’ on the ground that Virg. does not mean to say “O decus Italiae, quae es virgo,” but “O virgo, quae es decus Italiae:” but this seems refining. ‘Dicere’ refers to the expression of gratitude, ‘referre,’ like “persolvere” 1. 600., 2. 537, to its exhibition in act.

[509] Nunc, as things are, as in 10. 630 &c. ‘Esse supra’ like “ire supra” 12. 839. ‘Supra omnia’ is rightly explained by Serv. “supra omnis grates et supra omne praemium.” Heyne's “supra pericula, fortunae casus et sic porro” is less natural.

[510] Iste animus like “hic animus” 9. 205. Ribbeck needlessly reads ‘supera,’ from a MS. of Priscian, who quotes the passage, and a doubtful indication in Med. Turnus proposes that instead of taking the whole work of engaging the enemy, she should share it with him.

[511] Fides, credence, hence a story that claims credence. So “mira fides” occurs more than once in Stat.: see Forc. ‘Reportant’ applies to ‘missi exploratores’ more properly than to ‘fama.

[512] Inprobus: Aeneas being an enemy, his activity is made matter of blame. ‘Equitum levia arma’ for “equites leviter armatos.” ‘Levia arma’ 10. 817.

[513] Praemisit implies an order, and so is followed by an oratio obliqua. Comp. 1. 645, where the distinction attempted in the note is nugatory, the two constructions being really the same. ‘Quaterent campos’ from Lucr. 2.330, “equites . . . . Tramittunt valido quatientes impete campos.” ‘Ipse’ &c.: the construction, as Wagn., following Donatus, has pointed out, is “per deserta montis ardua ad urbem adventat, iugo ea superans,” not, as Gossrau thinks, “superans ardua montis, per deserta iugo (= de iugo) adventat.” “Parnasi deserta per arduaG. 3. 291, where as here it may be doubted which is the substantive, which the epithet. ‘Ardua montis’ 8. 221.

[514] Iugo seems a sort of instrumental abl., i. q. “iugo ascenso,” though it might possibly be local. Virg. doubtless wished to avoid the more ordinary expression “iugum superans.” ‘Properans’ was found in some copies by Pierius, who mentions Rom. among them; but this last Ribbeck seems to deny. ‘In urbem’ is also mentioned by Pierius as a variant, but it is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.

[515] Furta of secret operations in war 9. 350., 10. 735. Serv. quotes a fragm. of Sall. Hist. 1 (given more fully by Non. p. 310), “gens ad furta belli peridonea.” The path is called ‘convexus’ because lying along the sloping sides of a glen. “Convexo nemorum” 1. 310.

[516] Ut seems to mark the consequence or development of the action denoted by ‘furta paro,’ rather than an intention: but the distinction in such cases is apt to be evanescent. ‘Bivias fauces,’ because the passage through the defile is a thoroughfare, like “bivio portae” 9. 238, where as here the word has no special relevancy to the context. But it is possible that the first part of the compound may be the important one, the meaning being that soldiers will be planted on each side of the defile. ‘Armato milite’ 2. 20.

[517] Equitem sing. 10. 239. ‘Collatis excipe signis’ i. q. “excipe et signa confer,” meet them and engage them.

[519] Tiburti Rom., Med. and Pal corrected, ‘Tiburni’ Med. and Pal. originally. The former is supported by all Ribbeck's MSS. in 7. 671, and by “Tiburtia moenia” ib. 670. Tiburtus was the king of the place: his brothers Catillus and Coras led the troops: see 7. l. c. ‘Ducis et tu concipe curam:’ ‘et,’ as Serv. rightly says, does not mean as well as Messapus &c., but as well as Turus himself, the point of his speech being that she is to share his business. ‘Concipere’ however cannot mean, as Serv. thinks, to share, “mecum cape,” but must mean to assume. Some copies point after ‘ducis,’ wrongly.

[521] Socios relatively to himself, not to Messapus, the meaning being ‘Messapus and the other confederate leaders,’ i. e. Catillus and Coras.

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