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[664] Ἔνθα τίνα πρῶτον, τίνα δ᾽ ὕστατον ἐξενάριξας, Πατρόκλεις; Il. 16. 692: comp. ib. 5. 703. “Telo deiicit” G. 1. 332.

[665] ‘Deiicis:’ see on v. 642 above. “Corpora fundat humi” 1. 192.

[666] ‘Euneum’ (found in one of Ribbeck's cursives) is the form supported by Serv., who remarks that Stat. (Theb. 6. 336 &c.) has the same name with the penult short. (In his reference to Stat. he has confused two passages, 6. 426 and ib. 457.) The name is known as that of a son of Jason, and is written in Greek Εὔνηος (Il. 23. 747) or Εὔνεως. Εὐναῖος does not seem to occur: Heyne. Heyne remarks that Euneus is a Trojan, Pagasus and Liris Etruscans, the rest whom Camilla kills Trojans again. ‘Clytio,’ perhaps the same as in 10. 129. ‘Clytio patre’ i. q. “Clytio prognatum,” like “patre Benaco” 10. 205, “genitore Adamasto” 3. 614. ‘Apertum transverberat’ seems to be i. q. “transverberat aperitque,” as in 10. 314 “latus haurit apertum.” But it is difficult to say in either case, as though in 10. l. c. the breastplate is mentioned, the meaning may be ‘unguarded by the shield,’ comp. 10. 425, Il. 16. 312.

[667] Transverberat of the stroke of a spear 10. 336. ‘Abiete’ of a spear of pinewood, as in 8. 91 of a ship of pine-wood.

[668] Sanguinis rivos 9. 456. With the general sense comp. 9. 414.

[669] “Humum semel are momordit” v. 418 above. ‘He writhes about his wound.’

[670] Super need only mean ‘besides:’ but the words that follow are in favour of taking it ‘on the body of Liris.’ Comp. G. 3. 263.

[671] Suffosso Med. a m. p., and originally one of Ribbeck's cursives. His other MSS. have ‘suffuso,’ which is supported by Med. a m. s. Serv. mentions both, apparently preferring ‘suffuso.’ ‘Suffusio’ is a swelling of the feet in horses (Veget. Vet. 2. 10, 25), which might of course cause a stumble: but it seems strange that Virg. should represent a horse of this kind as brought into the battle: though Wagn. contends that the swelling may have been a slight one, and that Virg. may have wished to consult variety. On the other hand Gossrau, who strangely contends that no sane man would try to lift up a horse which was stabbed from underneath, understands ‘suffuso’ ‘falling down,’ comparing “fusus,” “effusus;” and so Gesner would explain ‘suffosso’ ‘spurred;’ but neither of these glosses seems likely. On the whole there seems least difficulty in ‘suffosso,’ understood in its ordinary sense, whatever we may think of Liris' wisdom in the matter.

[672] Inertem, the reading before Heins., is found in Gud. and two other of Ribbeck's cursives. The words are constantly confounded (see 10. 595 &c.): here however ‘inermen’ seems to be distinctly preferable, as no reproach is intended, the meaning being that Pagasus laid aside his weapon and stretched out his unarmed hand to support Liris as he was falling. ‘Labenti’ probably refers to Liris' fall from his horse, not to his fall after being mortally wounded. Liris falls with his horse: Pagasus helps him to regain his feet: Camilla kills first one, then the other. With the sense generally comp. 10. 338.

[673] For the combination ‘praecipites pariterque’ see on 5. 447, 498.

[674] Hippotades is elsewhere found as a patronymic of Aeolus. ‘Incumbens’ of Camilla's action, throwing herself forward as she hurls the spear. ‘Sequitur hasta’ 9. 559 note.

[675] The names of Tereus and Harpalycus seem to point to Thrace, which was confederate with Troy.

[676] Cerda comp. Il. 8. 297, 298. We may also comp. ib. 17. 631. ‘Virgo’ contrasted with ‘viri’ in the next line: comp. “audetque viris concurrere virgo” 1. 493.

[678] Ignotis seems rightly explained by Serv. “novis, inconsuetis.” He was accounted as a hunter rather than as a soldier, which is the point of Camilla's taunt v. 686. For the horses of Apulia comp. Varro R. R. 2. 7. ‘Iapyge’ adjv. 247 above.

[679] Latos humeros 2. 721. ‘Pellis erepta iuvenco’ seems simply to mean a bullock's hide. ‘Pugnatori’ then will go with ‘cui,’ i. q. “pugnanti” (see on 12. 614): this was his accoutrement in war. Heyne in his smaller edition, followed by Gossrau and Forb., connects ‘pugnatori’ with ‘iuvenco,’ like “bellator equus,” supposing that Ornytus overcame a wild bull and stripped it of its skin. Pliny 30. 15 talks of “pugnator gallus.” Hunters wore a beast's hide as a chlamys or scarf, v. 576 above, 1. 323. Serv. erroneously supposes the meaning to be that Ornytus wears a corslet of bull's hide.

[680] The wolf's head is turned into a helmet like the lion's head 7. 667. ‘Hiatus:’ the open mouth of the wolf would answer to the visor of a helmet of another sort. Virg. has imitated the words of Eur. Herc. F. 361 foll. πυρσοῦ δ᾽ ἀμφεκαλύφθη ξανθὸν κρᾶτ᾽ ἐπινωτίσας δεινῷ χάσματι θηρός, which Cerda comp. See also Il. 10. 261 foll.

[682] Serv. says of ‘sparus,’ “bene ‘agrestis:nam sparus est rusticum telum in modum pedi recurvum,” citing some words of a passage in Sall. Cat. 56, the whole of which runs thus: “Sed ex omni copia circiter pars quarta erat militaribus armis instructa: ceteri, ut quemque casus armaverat, sparos aut lanceas, alii praeacutas sudes portabant.” From passages cited by Forc. it appears to have been not uncommonly used in war, doubtless by rustic tribes, or in the absence of more regular weapons. Varro ap. Serv. derives it from a kind of fish of the same name, which he says resembled it in shape. Serv. says others took it from “spargere,” which is the view of Festus, who cites the form “sparum” from Lucilius; but Festus' explanation, “parvissimi generis iacula,” would hardly suit a passage like the present. Mr. Yates (Dict. A. ‘Hasta’) remarks that it is evidently the same word as spear, spar.

[683] See on 7. 784, from which this line is nearly repeated.

[684] He was entangled among the rout, and so easily caught.

[685] Super, over his body, 5. 482. “Super haec inimico pectore fatur” 10. 556.

[686] Virg. may perhaps be thinking of the language of Il. 21. 485, where Hera says to Artemis Ἤτοι βέλτερόν ἐστι κατ᾽ οὔρεα θῆρας ἐναίρειν, Ἀγροτέρας τ᾽ ἐλάφους, κρείσσοσιν ἶφι μάχεσθαι. Rom. has ‘et’ for ‘te.

[687] Vestra, not for “tua,” but referring to the race, already indicated by ‘Tyrrhene.’ Camilla chooses to suppose that the Tuscans had threatened to drive the Volscians before them like hunted game. So Scott, Lady of the Lake, Canto 6. 18, “They come as fleet as forest deer: We'll drive them back as tame.”

[688] Rom., Gud., and two other cursives (one from a correction) have ‘redargueret,’ which was the reading before Heins. ‘Redarguerit’ is supported by Priscian, p. 881. It is to be taken as a future perfect. ‘Nomen,’ glory, as in 4. 94, “refertismagnum et memorabile nomen.” ‘Referes’ also contains the notion of carrying a thing to the dead, as in 2. 547. “Parentum manibus” 10. 827. The sentiment is the same as that of 10.829.

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