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[725] Οὐδ᾽ ἀλαοσκοπιὴν εἶχ᾽ ἀργυρότοξος Ἀπόλλων, Il. 8. 515, and elsewhere. “Hominum sator atque deorum” 1. 254.

[727] ‘Tarchontem,’ the reading before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.

[728] ‘Iniicit’ Rom. and a cursive, ‘incitat’ Med., Pal., Gud., and another cursive. Either would stand, but ‘incitat’ is awkward after ‘suscitat,’ though Pierius thinks that “duo verba eiusdem originationis eodem versu posita non nihil habent Venustatis.” Heins. ingeniously but needlessly conj. ‘incutit,’ which Ribbeck adopts. “Arrectae stimulis haud mollibus irae” above, 11. 452.

[730] Fertur equo simply means ‘rides,’ as in 5. 574. “Instigant studiis” 5. 228. ‘Alas:’ we must remember this is a cavalry engagement. ‘Variis vocibus,’ as in 10. 368, “Nunc prece, nunc dictis virtutem accendit amaris.” Pal. and Gud. have ‘iras’ for ‘alas,’ a repetition from v. 728.

[731] Macrob. Sat. 6. 1, says that Virg. modelled this passage on one in Book 10 of Furius: “Nomine quemque ciet: dictorum tempus adesse (qu. “ciet ductorum: tempus adesse”?)
Commemorat . . . .
Confirmat dictis simul atque exsuscitat acris
Ad bellandum animos, reficitque in proelia mentes.

This instance throws light on what was doubtless a common practice with Virg.— converting tolerable passages in inferior authors to his own purposes. Comp. also the celebrated description in Thuc. 7. 69, where Nicias exhorts his officers before the last battle, αὖθις τῶν τριηράρχων ἕνα ἕκαστον ἀνεκάλει, πατρόθεν τε ἐπονομάζων καὶ αὐτοὺς ὀνομαστὶ καὶ φυλήν. See generally Il. 4. 223 foll.

[732] The speech is taken more or less from Agamemnon's addresses in Il. 4. l. c., especially vv. 338 foll. ‘Numquam dolituri’ doubtless means ‘never likely to feel a sense of shame’ (“dolor” as in G. 3. 102, &c., ἀνάλγητοι; and so it was understood by Val. F. 3. 230 foll., quoted by Wagn., “Numquamne dolor virtute subibit Nil ausas sine rege manus?” where the context shows that an imitation was intended). But it is tempting to compare it with ἀταλαίπωρος and our ‘indolent,’ giving it the sense ‘that never will take trouble.’ “Indolens,” however, is not a classical word at all, and “indolentia” seems to be simply a coinage of Cic. to express ἀναλγησία.

[733] Animis ignavia venit like “novus iste Dianae venit amor,” v. 538 above. ‘Venit’ of course is not strictly consistent with ‘numquam’ or ‘semper,’ implying, as it does, that the state of inaction is not habitual: but there is a rhetorical propriety in this.

[734] Palantis agit 5. 265. ‘Haec agmina’ ranks as strong as ours are. “Agmina vertit” 9. 800, where, however, “fuga” has preceded. For ‘vertere’ alone, comp. 10. 593. With the line generally Cerda comp. Eur. Bacch. 763, κἀπενώτιζον φυγῇ Γυναῖκες ἄνδρας.

[735] Imitated from Il. 21. 474, νηπύτιε, τί νυ τόξον ἔχεις ἀνεμώλιον αὔτως; ‘Geritis’ is found in some inferior copies, including one of Ribbeck's cursives; but Pier. justly remarks that Tarchon's appeal is made more urgent by his identification of himself with those whom he blames. ‘Tela inrita’ 2. 459. Comp. generally 9. 620. ‘Quo ferrum’ may be constructed like “Quo mihi fortunam” Hor. 1 Ep. 5. 12; or ‘quo’ may go with ‘gerimus.’ The introduction of ‘quid’ in the second clause perhaps makes the former more likely.

[737] Pal. is deficient from this line to v. 783. For the use of the pipe in sacrifices and its connexion with Etruria, see on G. 2. 193. ‘Curva tibia’ is identified by Serv. with the αὐλὸς πλάγιος or πλαγίαυλος, called by the Romans “obliqua tibia” (Pliny 7. 56, quoted by Emm.): but this, according to Yates in Dict. A. ‘Tibia,’ was so called from its having a mouth-piece inserted at right angles. It will then rather be the “adunco tibia cornu” of Ov. M. 3. 531, Stat. Theb. 6. 120, which seems to have been fitted with a horn bending upward, so as to have the appearance of a “lituus” (Dict. A. l. c.). ‘Indixit choros’ like “indicere supplicationem” &c. Some old edd. have ‘induxit,’ with which we might comp. E. 5. 30, “thiasos inducere Bacchi.” With the line generally comp. 9. 618.

[738] Exspectate is the reading of all Ribbeck's MSS. (Pal., we must remember, is wanting), and was apparently read by Serv., whose note is “pro ‘exspectatis:modum pro modo posuit:” but though Ribbeck accepts it, it is difficult to see what sense is to be extracted from the imperative. Pier. says that ‘exspectare’ “in aliquot omnino codicibus antiquis invenitur;” but it is unknown what these are. In later copies it is found, as in the Balliol MS. Canon. has the imperative. Gossrau sensibly remarks on Serv.'s note, “Ubi ea explicandi ratio invaluit, mirum non est, si quae describentis errore oriuntur formae, aliquo modo explicantur et confirmantur.” ‘Segnes exspectare’ like “segnes nodum solvere Gratiae” Hor. 3 Od. 21. 22. Cerda quotes instances of ‘plena mensa’ from Plaut. Men. 1. 1. 13, Prop. 3. 7. 5.

[739] Hic amor, hoc studium, as Serv. remarks, is parenthetical, the construction being ‘exspectare dum.’ “Hic amor, haec patria est” 4. 347. ‘Secundus,’ as Serv. remarks, reflects part of its meaning on ‘sacra’ (“sacra secunda” = καλὰ τὰ ἱρά), though Gossrau is also right in explaining “secundus vobis et vestrae edacitati.” The banquet did not begin till the sacrifice was over, Il. 1. 464 &c.

[740] Heyne remarks that sacrifices and banquets in groves were a primitive and rustic custom. Comp. Tibull. 1. 10. 51, “Rusticus e lucoque vehit, male sobrius ipse, Uxorem plaustro progeniemque domum.

[741] Moriturus expresses his intention, not what was actually to happen. ‘Et ipse’ may be taken in three ways: as well as those whom he hoped to slay—he readily risked his life against the lives of others—; as well as his men—he did not content himself with exhorting, but set the example—; and as well as those who had fallen already. The first is the view of Serv., the third that of Gossrau; but the second seems on the whole the most natural. Gud. reads ‘moriturus in hostis,’ from 2. 511.

[742] “Turbidus ingreditur campo” 10. 763. Here violent motion (comp. “turbo”) seems to be meant. Rom. and Gud. have ‘offert.’ Comp. 7. 420.

[743] Dereptum, not ‘direptum,’ seems to be found in all Ribbeck's MSS. Comp. 1. 211., 4. 593, G. 2. 8. ‘Dextra’ prob. with ‘conplectitur’ rather than ‘dereptum.’ Serv. mentions two strange stories, either of which, he thinks, might have suggested this incident to Virg.; one, of Caesar, who is similarly seized by a Gaulish chief, but let go on another chief's pronouncing his name, which his captor misunderstood as an order to release him, the sound of the words being the same—a story, he says, told by Caesar in his diary (“Ephemeris”); another, of an ancestor of Varro, who obtained that name by carrying off an enemy named Varro in the same way in a battle with the Illyrians, the younger Varro himself being the teller of the tale.

[744] Concitus is perhaps a little awkward after ‘concitat:’ but such inadvertencies are not uncommon. Rom. strangely has ‘egregium’ for ‘et gremium.

[745] From Ennius (A. 17, fr. 4), according to Macrob. Sat. 6. 1, “Tollitur in caelum clamor exortus utrisque.

[746] “Convertere oculos” 12. 705. ‘Igneus’ above, v. 718.

[747] Arma virumque, Virg.'s favourite combination. ‘Ipsius’ is doubtless Venulus's spear, which agrees with ‘arma,’ and makes the triumph more complete.

[748] Partis rimatur apertas, looks, or feels, for an exposed place. Comp. Il. 22. 321, εἰσορόων χρόα καλόν, ὅπη εἴξειε μάλιστα, where, as here, the throat is the part fixed on.

[749] Volnus ferat like “plagam ferenti” 12. 299.

[750] Sustinet a iugulo dextram, holds his enemy's hand off from his throat. Comp. the use of ‘sustineo’ in such passages as Cic. Acad. Prior. 15 “sustinere se ab assensu,” and in such phrases as “sustinere remos.” ‘Exit’ with acc. 5. 438 note: see also Munro on Lucr. 5.1330. ‘Vim’ and ‘viribus’ are distinguished as violence and strength.

[751] Here and in 10. 454 Wagn. makes ‘que’ part of the form of comParison, like “ac;” but this seems unnecessary. Serv. inquired with what ‘alte’ is constructed: Heyne replies rightly, that ‘volans alte’ is a translation of ὑψιπέτης, which occurs in Il. 12. 201, a description which Virg. has imitated, though he does not follow Hom. in making the eagle let the snake go. Hom.'s description had already been imitated by Cic. in his poem on Marius, quoted by himself Div. 1. 47. “Fulvus Iovis ales” 12. 247.

[752] Inplicuit perf., not aor. ‘Unguibus’ abl., the case for ‘haesit’ being understood. Comp. such expressions as “discludere Nerea ponto” E. 6. 35.

[753] With ‘sinuosa volumina’ comp. 2. 208 “sinuat volumine terga,G. 3. 192 “sinuet volumina.” “Volumina versat” in a different sense 5. 408.

[754] “Squamis adstantibus hydriG. 3. 545. “Sibila colla Arduus attollens” 5. 277.

[755] Adunco Rom., the reading before Heins.

[756] Αὐτὸς δὲ κλάγξας πέτετο πνοιῇς ἀνέμοιο Il. l. c.

[757] Tiburtum: we learn from vv. 465, 604, 640, that these were engaged. From this line to v. 793 Rom. is wanting.

[758] “Exemplum, quod coepit, eventum, quod prospere” Serv. They imitate, not necessarily his action, but his boldness, and have like success. ‘Maeonidae’ 8. 479, 499.

[759-798] ‘Arruns watches his opportunity to throw a spear at Camilla, and prays to Apollo for success.’

[759] Arruns is ‘fatis debitus,’ both as the destined slayer of Camilla, and as destined himself to be slain. ‘Fatis’ is here dat., not, as in 7. 120, abl. The name is doubtless taken from the son of Tarquin, the man here being an Etruscan.

[760] Iaculo coupled with ‘multa arte.’ ‘Prior,φθάσας, anticipating all her movements, not, as Forb., before he strikes her, nor, as Gossrau and Peerlkamp, ‘prior iaculo et arte,’ like “pietate prior” above, v. 292.

[761] Ribbeck's cursives give ‘circumit:’ see Forc. s. v. ‘Fortuna’ of a favourable chance 7. 559, G. 3. 452.

[762] Furens 1. 491 of Penthesilea.

[763] Vestigia lustrat 2. 754, E. 2. 12. ‘Tacitus’ i. q. ‘furtim’ v. 765. Comp. 4. 306.

[764] “Inde pedem sospes multa cum laude reflexit” Catull. 62 (64). 112.

[765] Detorquet 5. 165.

[766] “Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemque pererrat Arte locum” 5. 441. For the rhythm comp. 9. 550, “hinc acies atque hinc acies.” Some copies, including one of Ribbeck's cursives, have ‘iamque hos abitus,’ which Donatus preferred: but ‘hoshos’ are used like “hichic” 12. 479, “hunchunchunc” 7. 473, 474.

[767] It is difficult to say whether ‘circuitum’ is the ordinary acc. of the object, or a kind of cognate. ‘Inprobus,’ unwearied, with a notion of blame. See on G. 1. 119. ‘Certam’ seems rather to express that Arruns had a definite object, than that the spear was inevitable; but it may well include both.

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