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[836] Triviae custos = “custos a Trivia posita,” as we might say, ‘Diana's sentinel.’ ‘In montibus;’ comp. 12. 134, where Juno beholds the armies from the Alban mount.

[837] Alta, like “altus Apollo” 6. 9, of elevated position. On ‘interrita,’ Peerlkamp not unreasonably remarks, after Heyne, “Quid mirum spectasse interritam, quae extra telorum iactum tuta in altis montibus sederit?

[838] Pal. and Gud. have the order ‘iuvenum medio.’ Pal. originally, and Gud. corrected have ‘iuvenem,’ Gud. and Med. ‘furentem,’ rather strange variations. “Clamor bellantum iuvenum” 12. 410.

[839] Heins. restored ‘mulcatam’ for ‘multatam,’ which Burm. replaced. Later editors have mostly followed Burm.; but Ribbeck seems right in recalling ‘mulcatam,’ which is distinctly attested by Serv. (whose note, however, appears not to be found in all MSS.), and is found in Med., Pal., Rom., Gud. originally, and another cursive. The two words may have been originally connected; but the ancients seem to have distinguished them in usage, though there are doubtless passages in which transcribers have confused them, and Forc. cites an inscription of the time of Domitian, where ‘mulco’ is spelt ‘mulcto.’ Usage would be rather in favour of ‘multatam’ here; but though ‘mulco’ is generally used of beating, there is no reason why Virg. should not have extended it to killing, after the analogy of “caedo,” “pello,” &c. In Cic. De Or. 1. 43, “morte multantur” has its proper sense of punishing.

[841] Nimium with ‘crudele.’ ‘Luisti supplicium’ like “supplicia expendunt” 6. 740.

[842] See above, v. 585.

[843] Desertae i. q. “soli,” a sense generally confined to places. Comp., however, Prop. 1. 17. 2, “Nunc ego desertas alloquor alcyones.” Here there may be a kind of hypallage. There is, however, perhaps equal plausibility in another interpretation mentioned by Serv., ‘forsaken of your patroness,’ just as Hom. constantly tells us that his warriors were not protected from death by that which had been their stay in life. Comp. Il. 22. 213, where Apollo leaves Hector when his fate is sealed. ‘In dumis,’ v. 570, here almost = “in silvis.”

[844] On a comParison of vv. 536, 652 above, it seems better not to restrict ‘gessisse’ to hunting, but to extend it to war as well. It is difficult to decide between ‘pharetras,’ the old reading, found in Pal., Rom., Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's cursives, and ‘sagittas,’ read by Med. and some others and restored by Wagn. ‘Gerere pharetram’ is much commoner than ‘gerere sagittas:’ on the other hand, ‘pharetras’ may have been altered because of the difficulty of the plural, which seems to indicate the number of times that Camilla was so equipped. On the whole, perhaps external authority may be allowed to turn the scale for ‘pharetras.’ Some MSS. (none of Ribbeck's) have ‘gestasse.’

[845] Reliquit was restored by Heins. for ‘relinquet,’ which is found in Pal., Gud., and one or two other of Ribbeck's cursives. Some copies have ‘relinquit.’ ‘Reliquit’ may be explained “reliquit quidem, sed non indecorem reliquit” (see on v. 843 above), or with reference to the conversation between Diana and Opis, ‘she has provided that you shall not be left.’ ‘Indecorem’ seems to refer to the disgrace of being unavenged, not to the absence of military glory. Comp. Aesch. Ag. 1279, οὐ μὴν ἄτιμοί γ᾽ ἐκ θεῶν τεθνήξομεν, and also Eur. Hipp. 1416 foll., which Valckenaer thinks Virg. may have had in his mind. “Infanda in morte reliqui” 10. 673. ‘Regina’ of goddesses, like ἄνασσα, see Forc. We may also comp. the use of “rex” for a patron.

[846] “Extrema iam in morte” 2. 447. Rom. has ‘nec.’ ‘Sine nomine per gentis erit’ i. q. “non celebratum per gentis erit.

[847] Strictly speaking, ‘famam’ is scarcely consistent with ‘sine nomine;’ but Virg. of course means that a dishonourable report will be equivalent to no report at all. Comp. “ignominia.” Serv. comp. Dido's pangs at dying unavenged 4. 659.

[848] See above, v. 591. Wunderl. Obs. on Tibull. 1. 3. 82 uses these two passages to illustrate the difference between the perf. ind. and perf. subj. or fut. perf.

[849] “Morte luat” above, v. 444. ‘Monte sub alto:’ so Misenus's barrow stands “monte sub aerio,” 6. 234. Virg. may have thought of Il. 2. 603 (referred to by Heyne), ὑπὸ Κυλλήνης ὄρος αἰπύ, Αἰπύτιον παρὰ τύμβον. Serv. says “Apud maiores nobiles aut sub montibus aut in montibus sepeliebantur: unde natum est ut super cadavera aut pyramides fierent aut ingentes collocarentur columnae.

[850] The only notices of this personage seem to be found in Iulius Sabinus and Serv., the former of whom says “Dercennus rex unus ex antiquissimis in Latio, quem plerique Latinum eundem dixerunt, ut Iginus” (Hyginus, who wrote commentaries on Virg.: see Ribbeck Proleg. pp. 117 foll.), the latter “quidam de Stercenii (al. Sterce) rege aboriginum hoc nomen fictum putant.” The MSS. as usual vary much in the writing of the name: ‘Dercenni’ however appears to be found in all of Ribbeck's except Med., which has ‘Decerni’ altered a m. s. to ‘Dercerni.’

[851] Antiqui Laurentis may be constructed either with ‘Dercenni regis,’ or, as the order seems to suggest, in apposition with it. ‘Opaca ilice tectum’ coupled by ‘que’ with ‘terreno ex aggere.’ The custom of planting trees round tombs was Roman, Martial 1. 88 (89). 5, Strabo 5. 3 (of Augustus), p. 236 C.

[852] Comp. generally 4. 252. It is not easy to see why Opis, who has seen the death of Camilla from the mountain, comes down to the barrow, as she can hardly have needed to identify Arruns, while her arrow must be supposed capable of reaching him at any distance. ‘Pulcherrima,’ a sort of Homeric epithet, with no particular relevancy.

[853] Speculatur, spies out, 5. 515 &c.

[854] Wagn. and the later editors read ‘laetantem animis’ from the first reading of Med., as Wakef. had already done; but ‘fulgentem armis’ makes sufficiently good sense, and it seems hazardous to disturb it on the authority of a single copy (a Leyden MS. apparently has ‘surgentem animis’) merely because the alternative reading may be thought slightly preferable on poetical grounds. Besides, it may be contended that ‘laetantem animis’ would be tautological with ‘vana tumentem,’ while Opis might be naturally struck with the glittering of Arruns' arms, which would excite her indignation as a sort of additional insult. ‘Vana tumentem’ like “infanda furentem” 8. 489, as Serv. remarks.

[855] Partially repeated from 5. 162: comp. ib. 166.

[856] Periture veni like “exspectate venis” 2. 283 note: though, as both may be taken as ordinary vocatives, they are not exactly like γενοῦ πολυμνῆστορ there quoted. ‘Praemia Camillae’ = “praemia Camillae occisae.” Rom. has ‘Camilla.’ “Praemia reddant debita” 2. 537, cited by Forb.

[857] “Cum ingenti amaritudine dictum est: nam ei etiam genus invidet mortis,” Serv. It was an honour to be killed by a great warrior, v. 689 above: it is a greater honour to be killed by the weapons of a goddess; and this Opis naturally grudges to such a caitiff as Arruns. Heyne, who makes an unaccountable difficulty about the words, comp. Stat. Theb. 10. 910, “Tune etiam feriendus?” Wagn. and Jahn also mistake the passage, supposing its point to be that Diana's darts are inevitable.

[858] Opis's country has not been previously mentioned: but she is named in Apollod. 1. 4. 4 as a Hyperborean. Comp. also v. 659 above, 1. 316., 5. 312. ‘Aurata:’ Dido's quiver is “ex auro” 4. 138.

[859] “Depromunt tela pharetris” 5. 501. “Spicula vertunt infensi” 5. 587, ‘infensus’ like “infestus” expressing that the weapon is levelled against the foe: comp. 10. 521. The description is freely modelled on Il. 4. 116 foll. Gossran remarks that this circumstantial detail is appropriate where a nymph is taking vengeance.

[860] Ducere, of drawing a bow, 9. 623. Some MSS., including one of Ribbeck's cursives, have ‘eduxit.’ ‘Longe’ is explained by what follows: the bow was drawn to its full stretch one way, the string the other. ‘Donec’ with subj. expresses her intention.

[861] Capita, the extremities of the bow, which would approach nearer to each other the greater the strain. Cerda cites an instance of this use from Sidon. Epist. 1. 2. he also remarks that the technical expression for so bending the bow is “inplere,” Veget. 1. 15. ‘Aequis’ seems to mean that she pulled the bow as far with one hand as she pulled the string with the other. Virg. probably thought of Il. 4. 122, ἕλκε δ᾽ ὁμοῦ γλυφίδας τε λαβὼν καὶ νεῦρα βόεια, as in v. 862 he thought of the next line, νευρὴν μὲν μαζῷ πέλασεν, τόξῳ δὲ σίδηρον.

[862] Aciem ferri, the point or blade of the arrow, as it lay on the centre of the arch of the bow. Wagn. says this is the only instance in Virg. of the elision of a long ‘a’ before a short vowel, and attempts to get rid of it by pronouncing ‘aciem’ as a disyllable.

[863] See above, vv. 801, 802.

[864] It is just possible, as was suggested on 6. 559, that Virg. may have written ‘hausit:’ the MSS. however present no variety though they spell ‘haesit’ in various ways (‘haessit,’ ‘hessit’), except that one of no authority has ‘exit.’ Serv. quotes a characteristic parallel from Stat. Theb. 8. 439, “heu celeres Parcae! iam palpitat arvis Phaedimus, et certi nondum tacet arcus Amyntae.

[865] “Extremosque ciet gemitusG. 3. 517.

[866] Obliti: we may infer from this that he had not proclaimed what he had done, in spite of his pride in it. ‘Ignoto eamporum in pulvere’ for “ignoto in loco eampi pulverulenti,” as Forb. remarks. Donatus says, “quod erat ultionis argumentum ut socii illius obliviscerentur.

[867] “Pennis ablata” 3. 258.

[868-895] ‘There is a general rout of the Rutulians, who fly to the town. The gates are closed, and many perish miserably outside. Even the women, in desperation, attempt to defend the wall.’

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