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[196] So of Agamemnon, Il. 19. 257, Εὐξάμενος δ᾽ ἄρα εἶπεν, ἰδὼν εἰς οὐρανὸν εὐρύν.

[197] “Maria aspera iuro” 6. 351. The constr. is like the Greek ὄμνυμι with acc., Ὄμνυμι γαῖαν Ἡλίου θ᾽ ἁγνὸν σέβας, Eur. Med. 752 &c. It is found in prose, Cic. Fam. 7. 12, “Iovem Lapidem iurare.

[198] Latonae genus duplex, the Sun and Moon. ‘Ianum bifrontem’ 7. 180.

[199] Vim deum infernam means more than ‘inferos deos’ (like “odora canum vis” for “odori canes”). “Caelestum vis magna” 7. 432. Virg. is thinking of Il. 19. 259, Ἐρινύες, αἵθ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖαν Ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κ᾽ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ. ‘Duri,’ comp. G. 4. 470, “Regemque tremendum, Nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda.” ‘Sacraria,’ the shrine of Dis, probably meaning his abode: conversely a temple is often called “domus.” So Jupiter in Stat. Theb. 3. 246 calls heaven “Arcem hanc aeternam, mentis sacraria nostrae” (Forc.), which may serve to fix the meaning here.

[200] Sancire foedus, to enforce a treaty by a penalty: comp. Livy 23. 8, “Sanguine Hannibalis sanciam Romanum foedus” (Taubm.). Cic. (?) post Red. suum ad Quir. 5, “Cum . . . omnia cum omnibus foedera . . . sanguine meo sancirentur.” ‘Fulmine,’ by striking perjurers with his bolt.

[201] Tango aras 4. 219 note, 6. 124. “Is cui, si aram tenens iuraret, crederet nemo” Cic. pro Flacco, 36. 90. “Vendet periuria summa Exigua et Cereris tangens aramque pedemque” Juv. 14. 218: comp. Livy 21. 1. ‘Medios ignes et numina’ apparently means ‘the fires and the gods that are between us.’ Aeneas and Latinus probably stand with the altar between them, and the gods are supposed to be present at the sacrifice. Heins. explained ‘medios’ as = “sequestres et conciliatores pacis.” ‘Mediosque’ was the common reading before Pierius and Heins.

[202] Foedere Med. a m. p. ‘Rumpat’ Pal. (corrected from ‘rumpit’), and so Gud.

[203] Quo res cumque cadent 2. 709. ‘Cadet’ Rom. for ‘cadent.’ ‘Illa’ Gud. originally for ‘ulla.

[204] Avertet, turn away from my engagement. ‘Avertit’ Gud. originally. ‘Tellure effundat et undas’ Med. first reading. “Non si terra mari miscebitur et mare caeloLucr. 3.842, where see Munro. Serv. thinks ‘tellurem effundat in undas’ is a hypallage for ‘si undas effundat in tellurem:’ doubtless ‘effundat’ is chosen purposely, to give the notion of melting. The nom. to ‘effundat’ is ‘vis.

[205] Diluvio implies that the water encroaches on the land. ‘Miscens,’ confounding. ‘Solvat,’ a rhetorical continuation of ‘effundat.’ In each case it is the solid part of the universe that is supposed to give way. Med. a m. p. has ‘solvit.

[206] An imitation of the well-known passage, Il. 1. 234 foll., Ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον, τὸ μὲν οὔποτε φύλλα καὶ ὄζους Φύσει, &c. Wagn. remarks, “Mira profecto comparatio, in qua nihil rebus collatis inter se commune, nisi quod neutrum futurum esse contenditur.” ‘Dextra sceptrum nam forte gerebat’ seems weak: but Virg. is fond of ‘forte’ in such descriptions: see 11. 552, “Telum inmane, manu valida quod forte gerebat” of Metabus: and v. 488 below.

[207] Fundit Pal., corrected into ‘fundet.’ ‘Fundere virgulta’ like “fundere floresE. 4. 23., 9. 41. ‘Fronde,’ probably descriptive, taken with ‘virgulta.’ ‘Umbras,’ a common point in Virg.'s description of trees: see G. 1. 157, 191., 2. 297, 410, &c. ‘Neque,’ one of Ribbeck's cursives, and so Heins. and Heyne: ‘nec’ was restored by Wagn.

[208] Virg. is rendering closely Homer's Ἐπειδὴ πρῶτα τομὴν ἐν ὄρεσσι λέλοιπεν, Il. 1. 235. ‘Cum’ then has virtually the force of “ex quo,” much as we use ‘since’ in both a temporal and a logical sense. 5. 626 and the passage of Cicero there quoted are not parallel, as in them ‘cum’ is coextensive with the whole time covered by the principal verb. For the gender of ‘stirps’ see on v. 781 below.

[209] Cadet Med. for ‘caret.’ ‘Matre’ the parent tree, not the parent earth, as Heyne is inclined to take it: comp. G. 2. 23, “Hic plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum Deposuit sulcis:” and ib. 19. 55. ‘Posuitque comas,’ &c.: so nearly Prop. 3. 12. 12, “Et vitem docta ponere falce comas” (Cerda). ‘BracchiaG. 2. 296, 368. ‘Ferro,’ instr. abl.: comp. 9. 704 note.

[210] ‘Arbos,’ of a large branch of a tree, as in G. 2. 81. ‘Aere decoro:’ Virg. has given a new turn to Hom.'s περὶ γάρ ῥά χαλκὸς ἔλεψεν φύλλα τε καὶ φλοιόν.

[211] Inclusit, not unlike “inclusum buxo ebur” 10. 136, “smaragdi Auro includunturLucr. 4.1127. Νῦν αὖτέ μιν υἷες Ἀχαιῶν Ἐν παλάμῃς φορέουσι δικασπόλοι, οἵτε θέμιστας Πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται, Il. l. c. Virg. in translating this represents the Latin ‘patres’ or primitive senate as occasionally carrying the sceptre, though generally it is the symbol of royalty alone (8. 506, &c.). The only other exception to this is the case of the princess Ilione, who is said to have borne a sceptre, 1. 653. For the construction ‘patribus dedit gestare’ comp. 1. 319 note. ‘Certare’ Rom. for ‘gestare.

[212] “Foedera firment” 11. 330.

[213] Prospectu Med. for ‘conspectu.’ ‘Rite sacratas,’ by the ἀπαρχή, v. 173 above.

[214] In flammam iugulant pecudes 11. 199. ‘Viscera vivis Eripiunt,’ so Seneca, Thyestes 4. 755, “Erepta vivis exta pectoribus tremunt, spirantque venae, corque adhuc pavidum salit” (Taubm.). Comp. 4. 64 note, “Pecudumque reclusis Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta.” ‘Viscera,’ however, may mean the flesh, as elsewhere in Virg. (1. 211, &c.), the sense being that the victims are flayed before they are quite dead.

[215] Cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras 8. 284 note.

[216-310] ‘Juturna excites the Rutulians to break the treaty. The augur Tolumnius, encouraged by a prodigy which she had sent, throws his javelin among the Trojan ranks, and kills a man: the conflict becomes general: Messapus slays the Etruscan prince, Aulestes, and other blood is shed.’

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