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[217] Vario misceri, &c., constructed like 2. 298, “Diverso interea miscentur moenia luctu.” ‘Misceri,’ are confused: ‘vario,’ discordant: comp. 11. 454, “Hic undique clamor Dissensu vario magnus se tollit ad auras.

[218] It is perhaps impossible to get a satisfactory explanation of this line. “Non viribus aequis: eos congressuros esse, subaudis” Serv., and so nearly Heyne, who supplies “pugnam ineundam” as acc. to ‘cernunt.’ Wagn. thinks that ‘viribus aequis’ can be taken as an abl. of quality used as an adj., quoting Tac. A. 1. 13, “(Arruntium) divitem, promptum, artibus egregiis et pari fama publice, suspectabat:” but there the constr. is fixed by the preceding adj., as it is fixed by the following adj. in 3. 618, “Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis, Intus opaca, ingens.” Forb. in his first edition thought that ‘cernunt’ = “pugnant” (see his note on v. 709 below), but the battle had not yet begun. All these explanations are strained: perhaps the least strained is Heyne's, for after ‘ea pugna’ v. 216, ‘pugnam’ is the most natural acc. to supply. Schrader ingeniously conj. ‘viribus aequos.’ Ribbeck argues with much plausibility that the clause was left incomplete by Virg., and puts a mark of omission after ‘non viribus aequis.

[219] Adiuvat, aids the growing excitement: comp. 5. 345. ‘Ingressu’ Gud. with another of Ribbeck's cursives and the MS. known as ‘Oblongus Pierii.’ ‘Tacito,’ quiet, subdued: Schrader conj. ‘tardo,’ perhaps suggested by Donatus' explanation of ‘tacito:’ “primum est ingressus tacitus, dum vix pedem movebat.” The constr. ‘adiuvat progressus’ (= ‘adiuvat progressio eius’) is not uncommon: comp. Livy 24. 30, “Terroris speciem haud vanam mendacio praebuerant verberati ac securi percussi transfugae ad duo milia hominum:” Tac. Hist. 2. 66, “Angebat Vitellium victarum legionum haudquaquam fractus animus.

[220] Lumen in sing. seems rare in the sense of ‘oculus,’ as in 8. 153, “Totum lustrabat lumine corpus.” Forc. quotes Ov. 3 Trist. 2. 19, “Nec nostro parcior imber Lumine, de verna quam nive manat aqua.” Add Catull. 62 (64). 86, “Hunc simul ac cupido conspexit lumine virgo.

[221] Tabentes one of Ribbeck's cursives with the two Menteliani and some inferior copies: so Donatus on v. 219, “Tabentium genarum a macie repentina.” But Med., Pal., Rom., Gud. corrected and two more of Ribbeck's cursives give ‘pubentes:’ though Pierius says that in Med. ‘pubentes’ was altered from ‘tabentes.’ Serv. is silent. Whence ‘pubentes’ came it is hard to say: it gives no rational sense in this context. ‘Tabentes,’ wasted. ‘Iuvenali’ Heins. for ‘iuvenili,’ which is found in one of Ribbeck's cursives. Wagn. blames Virg. for inconsistency in representing Turnus' spirit as broken: but his character is throughout vehement and excitable (see on 10. 151), and it is not unnatural that his courage, like Hector's in Homer, should be damped in presence of a great crisis.

[222, 223] From Il. 4. 75 foll., where Athene descends from heaven to incite the breach of the treaty. ‘Quem . . . sermonem:’ Virg. implies what Hom. says directly, Ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκεν ἰδὼν ἐς πλησίον ἄλλον, &c. Not unlike are “quo gemitu” 2. 73, “quo motuG. 1. 329. ‘Labentia’ Rom. for ‘labantia.’ “Animum labantem” 4. 22.

[224] δ᾽ ἀνδρὶ ἰκέλη Τρώων κατεδύσεθ᾽ ὅμιλον, Il. 4. 86. A Camers, king of Amyclae, is pursued by Aeneas, 10. 562.

[225] Genus a proavis ingens like “genus alto a sanguine divom” 5. 45, “genus ab Iove summo” 1. 380. ‘Genus’ is called ‘ingens,’ as “stirps” (6. 864) “magna.

[226] Et ipse acerrimus armis added after ‘cui genus a proavis ingens’ in a way not absolutely grammatical. The strongest instance of this kind of looseness of constr. in Virg. is 9. 593, “Cui Remulo cognomen erat, Turnique minorem Germanam nuper thalamo sociatus habebat.

[227] Haud nescia rerum probably means ‘not ignorant how to deal with matters—knowing her task well:’ comp. 5. 618 (note), “Ergo inter medias sese haud ignara nocendi Coniicit.” Wagn., taking the words as = ‘not ignorant of the state of matters,’ judges them otiose.

[228] Macrob., Sat. 6. 1, says that this line is from a verse of Furius Antias, “Rumoresque serunt varios et multa requirunt.” Cerda quotes Soph. Electra 642, Μὴ. . . .σπείρῃ ματαίαν βάξιν ἐς πᾶσαν πόλιν.

[229] Pro cunctis, &c., to give one life for all and for such as we are. ‘Talibus’ is explained by the following line.

[230] Obiectare 2. 751, G. 4. 217. ‘Numerone,’ &c., ‘is it in numbers or in strength that they overmatch us?’ ‘Ac’ Pal. (the ‘c’ in an erasure) for ‘an.’ ‘Aequis’ Pal., Gud., and some inferior copies, perhaps from v. 218.

[231] En, omnes, &c., an answer to ‘numerone aequi non sumus?’ ‘These Trojans, Arcadians, and Etruscans are all they have.’ ‘Troes et Arcades,’ Trojan and Arcadian exiles, and strangers to us, about whose friendship we need not be careful (Pierius).

[232] Fatales Med. and Rom., and so Ribbeck rightly: ‘fatalis’ Pal. and Gud. There is some difficulty in ‘fatales,’ and Heyne so far despaired of explaining it as to mark the line as spurious; Wagn., in his large edition, following him. The best explanation is that of Forb. and Jahn (2nd edition), that ‘fatalis’ is ironical: ‘the bands that are in the hands of fate,’ to their imagined profit and real destruction. The Etruscans (see 8. 499 foll.) were kept back from rising against Mezentius by oracles which told them to wait for foreign leaders: Juturna hints that these oracles would really prove false guides, just as Juno (10. 67) sneers at the prophecies in which Aeneas trusted: “Italiam petiit fatis auctoribus; esto: Cassandrae inpulsus furiis:” comp. Turnus' words 9. 133, “Nil me fatalia terrent, Si qua Phryges prae se iactant, responsa deorum: Sunt contra mea fata mihi.” ‘Fatales,’ supported by the fates, as 11. 232, “Fatalem Aenean manifesto numine ferri.” Serv. most strangely supposes ‘fatales manus’ to refer to the Trojans. ‘Etruria’ in apposition to ‘manus,’ being equivalent to “Etrusci:” comp. “Latio sequaci” for “Latinis sequentibus” 10. 365. ‘Infensa Turno,’ because he shielded Mezentius (8. 492): she means that they point all their hatred against Turnus alone, whereas the quarrel is really a national one.

[233] They would have hardly enough to meet us, even if only every other man of us were to engage them. Virg. is thinking of Il. 2. 123 foll.

[234] Aris constructed with ‘devovet:’ comp. 11. 440 foll. Juturna represents Turnus as dying, in Roman phrase, “pro aris et focis,” probably with a special reference to the new worship which Aeneas promises to introduce.

[235] Succedo, as in G. 4. 227, “alto succedere caelo.” So Lucr. 5.1123, “Ad summum succedere honorem.” With ‘ad superos succedet fama’ Forb. well comp. Cic. Cat. 3. 1. 2, “Romulum ad deos inmortales benevolentia famaque sustulimus.” ‘Vivusque,’ &c., G. 3. 9 note.

[236] “Nos, patria incensa” 3. 325.

[237] Lentis Gud. originally: ‘lenti’ is confirmed by Serv., who explains it as = “otiosi,” comparing E. 1. 4, “Tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra,” &c. “Arvis considere” 4. 39, in a somewhat different sense. ‘Armis’ Med. and Gud., both originally.

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