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[257] Augurium salutant is imitated in two places by Silius: 2. 411., 15. 146 (Forb.).

[258] Expediunt manus apparently = they make their hands ready for fight Comp. Sallust Iug. 105,Se quisque expedire, arma atque tela temptare.” Serv. seems to take the words of a show of hands in favour of fighting: Cerda thinks they refer to prayer. “Expedito bracchio Alacer” Enn. Sat. 27, apparently of a parasite. It is remarkable that the augur leads the way in deception.

[259] Tolumnius means that he had often prayed for a favourable omen of some kind, and that his prayer is now fulfilled, this proving to be the thing he asked for. ‘Erat’ is then like the Greek ἄρ᾽ ἦν; ‘this was the thing all the while, though I did not know it at the time.’ Comp. 2. 664 note. ‘Quod saepe petivi’ is a rhetorical exaggeration: Wagn. thinks that ‘saepe’ = “valde,” like “terque quaterque” and similar expressions.

[260] Accipere omen is the ordinary phrase for acknowledging and welcoming an omen: Livy 1. 7, Cic. de Div. 1. 46, &c. (Forc.) Whether however ‘accipio deos’ could stand as = ‘I welcome the divine sign’ may perhaps be doubted: it is therefore perhaps better with Wagn. to take ‘accipio’ by itself. He comp. Ov. M. 7. 620, “Accipio, sintque ista precor felicia mentis Signa tuae.” “Ut te . . . Accipio adgnoscoque libens,” says Evander to Aeneas 8. 155.

[261] Three of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘Rutuli’ for ‘miseri:’ Gud. has ‘miseri’ with ‘Rutuli’ written over it. In this and the following lines, as Wagn. remarks, the augur repeats, in interpreting the omen, the chief words which Virg. had used in the description of it: ‘inprobus,’ ‘litora vestra’ (‘litoreas aves’), ‘penitus vela dabit’ (‘penitus in nubila fugit’). So Polydamas (Il. 12. 219 foll.) repeats the very lines in which Hom. had described the eagle and its flight.

[262] Et litora vestra, &c., a demonstrative clause, as often added to develope a relative one: see on 5. 403, G. 2. 208.

[263] For ‘vi’ Med. has ‘ut.’ ‘Vi populat:’ comp. the line of Attius quoted on 1. 527, “Qui nostra per vim patria populavit bona.” ‘Profundo Vela dabit’ like “pelagoque volans da vela patentiG. 2. 41. “In altum Vela dabant” 1. 34. ‘Profundo’ = on or over the deep.

[264] Unanimis Med., ‘unanimes’ one of Ribbeck's cursives corrected, with some inferior copies and the MSS. of Eutychius: Med. (first reading) has ‘unanimem’ in 4. 8. ‘Unaanime’ Pal., and originally Gud. ‘Unanimi’ Rom., ‘unaanimi’ Gud. corrected. ‘Densate’ Med., Pal., and Gud., ‘densete’ Rom., with two of Ribbeck's cursives and some inferior copies, supported by Serv. on 11. 650, and so Ribbeck, probably rightly: see on G. 1. 248. “Addensent acies” 10. 432.

[265] Raptum, from ‘rapit,’ above v. 250. ‘Pugna’ with ‘defendite.

[267] The alliteration is remarkable: Virg. is thinking of the sounding line in which Hom. describes the flight of Pandarus' arrow: Λίγξε βιός, νευρὴ δὲ μέγ᾽ ἴαχεν, ἆλτο δ᾽ ὀϊστὸς Ὀξυβελής, Il. 4. 125. ‘Cornus:’ comp. G. 2. 447, “At myrtus validis hastilibus et bona bello Cornus.” “Volat Itala cornus” 9. 698.

[268] Certa like Horace's “Te metuende certa, Phoebe, sagitta” (1 Od. 12. 23). ‘Simulsimul’ as in 1. 513., 5. 675. The verb subst. is omitted as in 11. 633, “Tum vero et gemitus morientum, et sanguine in alto,” &c.

[269] Cunei, the rows of spectators: the metaphor, taken from a theatre, is developed more fully in 5. 288, 340, 664.

[270, 271] The structure of the sentence ‘ut forte’ followed below by ‘horum unum’ is the same as that of v. 488 below: “Uti laeva duo forte gerebat . . . . praefixa hastilia ferro, Horum unum . . . . dirigit.” ‘Ut forte’ 5. 329: comp. ib. 388. With the circumlocution “pulcherrima fratrum corpora” comp. 9. 272, “Bis sex . . . lectissima matrum Corpora.” So Enn. A. 97, “Ter quattor corpora sancta Avium.

[273] Horum unum takes up the interrupted sentence: comp. Il. 14. 410 foll., Χερμαδίῳ, τά ῥα πολλά, θοάων ἔχματα νηῶν, Πὰρ ποσὶ μαρναμένων ἐκυλίνδετο: τῶν ἓν ἀείρας &c. Med. (first reading) ‘mediam’ for ‘medium:’ and so some inferior MSS., reading also ‘alvum.’ ‘Medium’ used as a subst. as in 7. 59, 227, 563., 9. 230, &c. ‘Teritur alvo,’ presses against (is rubbed by) the stomach. Heyne less naturally takes ‘alvo’ as = ‘on the stomach,’ joining ‘teritur’ with “adstrictu fibulae” understood. Med. has ‘auro’ for ‘alvo,’ perhaps from a reminiscence of 5. 312, “Lato qua circumplectitur auro Balteus.” ‘Sutilis:’ the belt was probably made of leather and plated with metal: see Dict. A. ‘Balteus.

[274] ‘Laterim’ Pal., corrected into ‘lateri:’ ‘lateri’ Gud. Virg. is thinking of Il. 4. 132 foll., where Athene, turning aside Pandarus's arrow from striking Menelaus full, ἴθυνεν, ὅθι ζωστῆρος ὀχῆες Χρύσειοι σύνεχον καὶ διπλόος ἤντετο θώρηξ. ‘Lateri’ in a locative sense (comp. Prop. 5. 7. 8, “lateri vestis adusta fuit”) would be tempting, supposing the authority in its favour were sufficiently decided. ‘Laterum’ can hardly mean, as Heyne thinks, the edges of the belt: ‘laterum inneturas’ probably = the ribs: comp. 1. 122, where “laterum compages” is used for the ribs of a ship. ‘Mordet,’ clasps closely: comp. Ov. M. 8. 318, “Rasilis huic summam mordebat fibula vestem” (Gossr.). “Qua fibula morsus Loricae crebro laxata revolverat ictu” Sil. 7. 624 (Cerda). Mr. Long inclines to think that ‘laterum iuncturae’ may mean the place where the ‘fibula’ may be said to join the sides of the man.

[275] Iuvenum Rom.

[276] ‘Transadigo’ below v. 508, “Transadigit costas et cratis pectoris ensem.” For the constr. “unum . . . transadigit costas” see on 10. 699. ‘Extendit,’ the reading of some inferior copies, is given by Gud. as a variant in the margin: doubtless from 5. 374. See note there.

[277, 278] ‘Phalanx:’ so seven brethren are called “stipata cohors” 10. 338. For the constr. ‘fratres . . . pars’ comp. E. 1. 65, “At nos hinc alii sitientis ibimus Afros, Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen.” See Madv. § 215 a. ‘Pars’ sometimes comes to have an almost adverbial force: comp. Lucr. 2. 97—99, “Sed magis adsiduo varioque exercita motu Partim intervallis magnis confulta resultant, Pars etiam brevibus spatiis vexantur ab ictu.” Tac. Hist. 1. 68, “Ipsi . . . vagi . . . magna pars saucii aut palantes,” &c.

[279] Caecique ruunt, rush blindly against the Latins. ‘Caecus’ as in 2. 356 of hungry wolves: “Quos inproba ventris Exegit caecos rabies.

[280] ‘Inundo’ is used similarly by Sil. 15. 552, “Fulgentibus armis Poenus inundavit campos.

[281] ‘Agyllini’ must be those of the subjects of Mezentius who had rebelled: for some of them had followed Lausus: comp. 7. 652 with 8. 479 foll. ‘Pictis Arcades armis:’ see the fragment of Bacchylides about the Mantineans quoted on 8. 588. The Amazons (11. 660) have ‘picta arma.

[282] Decernere ferro Enn. A. 136. For the construction of the inf. see on G. 1. 213.

[283] Diripuere aras like “diripuere focos” 9. 75. The tense is perf., not aorist. They pull the altars in pieces to get fire-brands: comp. 5. 660, (matres) “Conclamant, rapiuntque focis penetralibus ignem: Pars spoliant aras, frondem ac virgulta facesque Coniiciunt.” Pal. and Gud. originally have ‘et’ for ‘it.’ ‘It caelo’ can hardly here = ‘it ad caelum’ as in 5. 451 (note); if so, the words ‘tempestas’ and ‘imber’ in the next line would make a confusion of metaphor: ‘caelo’ must therefore = “per caelum,” which also suits ‘toto’ better. Comp. G. 1. 474, “Armorum sonitum toto Germania caelo Audiit:” comp. 3. 515, &c. The words are perhaps from Lucr. 4.168, “Cum fuerit liquidissima caeli Tempestas, per quam subito fit turbida foede.

[284] “Hastati spargunt hastas, fit ferreus imber” Enn. (A. 287), quoted by Macrob. Sat. 6. 1. For ‘ingruit’ Med. a m. p. has ‘ingravit.’

[285] Ferunt, carry off with them. ‘Crateras,’ for libations: ‘focos,’ see on v. 118 above. These persons, like Latinus, seem to be retiring, not mixing in the battle.

[286] Pulsatos, beaten and insulted. ‘Referens’ must be taken literally, ‘taking back with him,’ ‘divos’ being the images of the gods. See 2. 178, “numenque reducant.” Ruhkopf (followed by Forb.) objects that the presence of images at the ceremonial of making a treaty is never elsewhere mentioned, and very unnaturally makes ‘referens’=“imitans.

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