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[311] Inertem for ‘inermem’ Med. a m. p., a common variation. “Tendebat inertis palmas” 10. 595; “Dextras tendamus inertis” 11. 414. Aeneas throws aside sword and helmet (‘nudato capite’) to prove his peaceful intention. Serv. thinks he put off his helmet that they might recognize him better: comp. 5. 673, “En, ego vester Ascanius!—galeam ante pedes proiecit inanem.” In confirmation of Servius' view Mr. Long quotes the author of the Bellum Africanum 16, “Labienus in equo capite nudo versatur.

[313] “Quo, quo scelesti, ruitis?” Hor. Epod. 7. 1. For ‘quaeve’ Rom. with one of Ribbeck's cursives has ‘quove.’ ‘Ista . . . surgit,’ rises there among you: comp. “Quis furor iste novus?” 5. 670. ‘Recens’ one of Ribbeck's cursives and some inferior copies for ‘repens.

[315] “Conponere legesLucr. 4.966 (Forb.).

[316] Me sinite, let me alone to fight my battle: comp. perhaps Soph. O. T. 676, οὐκοῦν μ᾽ ἐάσεις κἀκτὸς εἶ; ‘Metus’ not as Heyne says, your fear for my safety, but the fears and suspicions which have driven you to fight: comp. 10. 9, “Quis metus aut hos Aut hos arma sequi ferrumque lacessere suasit?” ‘Faxo’ Madv. § 115 f.

[317] Manu = with my arm. Heyne read the next words in an order which is supported by none of Ribbeck's MSS., “Turnum iam debent hacc mihi sacra:” which, as Wagn. says, would = “his sacris effectum ut iam mihi debeatur Turnus:” the meaning of the MSS. order being “his iam sacris effectum ut mihi debeatur Turnus.” With ‘debent’ comp. “Soli mihi Pallas Debetur” 10. 442.

[318] The scene is probably suggested by Il. 4. 105 foll. ‘Voces,’ as opposed to ‘verba,’ seems generally to mean the sound of speaking as opposed to articulate speech: but here the distinction seems merely rhetorical.

[319] “Alis adlapsa sagitta . . . est” 9. 578 note, which shows that ‘alis’ should be joined with ‘adlapsa,’ not with ‘stridens.

[320] Pulsa, driven by the string: “nervo inpulsa sagitta” v. 856 below (Heyne). ‘Quo turbine’ seems to = “cuius turbine,” who drove it whirling home.

[321] Casusve deusve Med., probably from 9. 211, “Si quis in adversum rapiat casusve deusve.” For ‘ne . . . ne’ see 1. 308., 2. 788., 5. 95 (Wagn.).

[322] Pressa, kept secret: comp. 7. 103, (Haec responsa) “non ipse suo premit ore Latinus.” ‘Insignis’ with ‘facti,’ not with ‘gloria.

[323] The constr. is the same as in 6. 876, “Nec Romula quondam Ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno.” ‘Volnere Aeneae’ different from “volnere Ulixi” 2. 436. The obscurity of the archer serves as a foil to bring out the greatness of Aeneas.

[325] Turnus' courage returns as Aeneas retires: see on v. 221 above. With ‘ardet spe’ comp. Soph. Aj. 478,Ὅστις κεναῖσιν ἐλπίσιν θερμαίνεται”.

[326] The alliteration in this and the following lines adds to their movement.

[327] Emicat: 6. 5, “Iuvenum manus emicat ardens Litus in Hesperium.” ‘Molitur’ = ‘tractat,’ ‘regit:’ the word always suggests the notion of difficulty. See on G. 1. 329. As Wagn. observes, Virg. must have forgotten what he says here, when he came to speak of Turnus' charioteer Metiscus, v. 469 below.

[328] “Obvia multa virum demittit corpora morti” 10. 662.

[329] ‘Seminecis volvit’ proleptic. Perhaps Virg. was thinking of Il. 8. 215, Εἴλει δὲ θοῷ ἀτάλαντος Ἄρηϊ Ἕκτωρ Πριαμίδης.

[330] Proteret Med. a m. p. ‘Proterit,’ tramples under foot: stronger than ‘seminecis volvit.’ “Equitatus hostium . . . . circumire aciem nostram et aversos proterere incipit” Caes. B. C. 2. 41 (Forc.). Perhaps Virg. is thinking of Il. 11. 534 (of Hector's horses), Στείβοντες νέκυάς τε καὶ ἀσπίδας. ‘Et’ Rom. for ‘aut,’ and so the MSS. of Diomedes 412. ‘Raptas fugientibus,’ &c., repeated from 9. 763, “Principio Phalerim et succiso poplite Gygen Excipit: hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas,” where ‘hinc’ makes the sentence clearer than in this place. ‘Raptas’ here is obscure: it is best perhaps, with Heyne, to take it as = “arreptas” (comp. 8. 111, 220, &c.), ‘he seizes spear after spear, and throws them at the fugitives’— though, as Wagn. remarks, it is not clear where the spears all come from. Forb. thinks he snatches the spears from the bodies of the slain (Δούρατα . . . τὰ κταμένων ἀποαίνυμαι, Il. 13. 262): a feat hardly possible under the circumstances. Ὣς ὅγε πάντη θῦνε σὺν ἔγχεϊ, δαίμονι ἶσος, Κτεινομένους ἐφέπων, Il. 20. 494.

[331] Hector is often compared in the Iliad to Ares (e. g. v. 15. 605, Μαίνετο δ᾽ ὣς ὅτ᾽ Ἄρης ἐγχέσπαλος, &c.), but Virg. is here thinking specially of Il. 13. 298 foll., where Idomeneus and his charioteer Meriones are compared to Ares and Φόβος: Οἷος δὲ βροτολοιγὸς Ἄρης πόλεμόνδε μέτεισιν, Τῷ δὲ Φόβος, φίλος υἱός, ἅμα κρατερὸς καὶ ἀταρβής, Ἕσπετο, ὅστ᾽ ἐφόβησε ταλάφρονά περ πολεμιστήν: Τὼ μὲν ἄρ᾽ ἐκ Θρῄκης Ἐφύρους μετὰ θωρήσσεσθον, &c. “Terra Mavortia . . . Thraces arant” 3. 13 note. ‘Concitus’ of speed, as 11. 744, vv. 379, 902 below: so “incitus” v. 534 below. ‘Flumina . . . Hebri:’ similarly of the Amazons 11. 659, “Quales Threiciae cum flumina Thermodontis Pulsant,” &c.

[332] Intonat Pal., Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives, and so Serv. ‘Increpat’ Med. and Rom. There is the same variation 6. 607., 8. 527. ‘Increpat’ is partially confirmed here by Ov. M. 14. 820, “Inpavidus conscendit equos Gradivus et ictu Verberis increpuit:” and still more strongly by Silius 12. 684 (quoted by Wagn.), “Clipeoque tremendum Increpat” (of Hannibal). ‘Intonat’ might possibly be due to 9. 709, “clipeum super intonat igens,” and v. 700 below, “horrendumque intonat armis.” ‘Clipeo increpat,’ sounds the signal for battle by striking his shield: see on 8. 3. “Increpuitque lyra” of striking a lyre Ov. F. 6. 812. The expression is slightly varied in Livy 1. 25, “ut primo statim concursu increpuere arma micantesque fulsere gladii.” For ‘furentis’ Med. (first reading) gives ‘prementi’ (for ‘frementis,’ a not uncommon variation). “Frementis equos” 7. 638, v. 82 above, “furentis” 11. 609.

[333] Movere bellum G. 1. 509. With ‘inmittit equos’ comp. “inmissis iugis” 5. 146, and “laxis per purum inmissus habenisG. 2. 364 note. ‘Inmittit’ here suggests not merely the phrase “inmittere habenas,” but the notion of letting loose war and destruction (comp. 10. 13, 40, &c.). ‘Aequore aperto,’ over the open plain: comp. v. 450 below, “ille volat, campoque atrum rapit agmen aperto.

[334] Ante Notos, &c., swifter than the winds: comp. “Qui candore nives anteirent, cursibus auras” v. 84 above. ‘Ultima,’ the furthest ends of Thrace. Τῶν ὑπὸ ποσσὶ μέγα στεναχίζετο γαῖα, Il. 2. 784.

[335] Thraca Med., Pal., Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's cursives: ‘Thraica’ Rom. ‘Thraeca’ Ribbeck, and so Vahlen in Enn. Trag. 170. On the form ‘Thraca’ (Θρήκη) see Lachmann on Lucr. 5.30, who says that ‘Thracia’ is never used by any poet except Lucan 2. 162. In Ov. M. 6. 433 he alters ‘Thracia’ to ‘Thrace.’ ‘Atrae Formidinis ora’ from Lucr. 4.173. Δεῖμός τ᾽ ἠδὲ Φόβος καὶ Ἔρις, ἄμοτον μεμαυῖα, Ἄρεος ἀνδροφόνοιο κασιγνήτη ἑτάρη τε. Il. 4. 440.

[337] Acer Mentel. pr. originally, perhaps from a reminiscence of 8. 3. Serv. may have read ‘alacris;’ for he says “Quidam ‘alacer,gestiens et rei novitate turbatus, volunt: alacris vero laetus” (‘laetos’ in Ribbeck's quotation). ‘Alacer’ of Mezentius 10. 729. Comp. Il. 11. 532 foll., Τοὶ δὲ πληγῆς ἀΐοντες Π̔ίμφ᾽ ἔφερον θοὸν ἅρμα μετὰ Τρῶας καὶ Ἀχαιούς, Στείβοντες νέκυάς τε καὶ ἀσπίδας: αἵματι δ᾽ ἄξων Νέρθεν ἅπας πεπάλακτο &c.

[338] Fumantis, G. 2. 542, “equum fumantia colla.” ‘Quatit:’ note on 6. 571. “Concussit equos” 8. 3, of lashing horses. ‘Miserabile’ with ‘caesis.

[339] With ‘rores’ comp. “rorabant sanguine vepres” 8. 645.

[340] Mixta cruor arena, see on 10. 871.

[341] Iamque dedit, and now he has sent to death, &c., specifying the general account given above. Ribbeck rightly restores ‘Thamyrum’ for ‘Thamyrim,’ which seems to have found its way into the editions with no authority.

[342] Congressus=“comminus.” The second ‘eminus’ is omitted in Pal. and Rom., and originally in Med. The language of v. 510 below is not unlike this: “Congressus pedes, hunc venientem cuspide longa, Hunc mucrone ferit:” comp. Il. 20. 462, τὸν μὲν δουρὶ βαλών, τὸν δὲ σχεδὸν ἄορι τύψας.

[343] The name ‘Imbrasus’ is from Homer: Θρῃκῶν ἀγὸς ἀνδρῶν, Πείροος Ἰμβρασίδης, Il. 4. 519, 520. We have had an Asius, son of Imbrasus, 10. 123. Pal. and Rom. have ‘Embrasus,’ and ‘Embrasidas’ above for ‘Imbrasides.’ ‘Glaucus’ is a natural name for a Lycian. On the Lycian pairs of brothers see on 10. 126.

[344, 345] Paribus must refer to what follows ‘vel conferre manum,’ &c., and Wagn. is therefore right in removing Heyne's semicolon at the end of the line. ‘Paribus vel conferre,’ &c. = arms equally fitted for close fighting (on foot) or charging on horseback. Comp. E. 7. 5 (note), “Et cantare pares et respondere parati.” Serv. takes ‘paribus’ as = “ut aequaliter dimicarent, aequaliter currerent,” which might stand: comp. 6. 826, where ‘paribus armis’ means “arms exactly alike.” “Cursuque pedum praevertere ventos” 7. 807.

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