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[529] Murranus was the bosom friend of Turnus: see v. 639 below. ‘Sonantem’ is taken by Taubm., Cerda, and Heyne as = “iactantem:” as if Murranus was boasting of his long descent, as Aeneas does to Achilles in Homer. Serv. suggests with less probability that the meaning is that the name Murranus recalled the names of a long line of royal ancestors. In support of the first interpretation Mr. Munro quotes Martial 5. 17. 1, “Dum proavos atavosque refers et nomina magna, Dum tibi noster eques sordida condicio est.” Serv.'s explanation is supported by Jerome ad Laetam Epist. 107 (ed. Vallars, vol. 1, col. 672), “propinquus vester Gracchus nobilitatem patriciam nomine sonans.” The transitive use of ‘sonare’ is not uncommon in the poets. ‘Hic,’ sc. Aeneas.

[530] Genus, probably accus. after ‘sonantem:’ though it might be in apposition to ‘Murranum,’ as in Hor. 2 S. 5. 62, “Iuvenis Parthis horrendus, ab alto Demissum genus Aenea.” ‘Actum’ = “ductum” or “deductum.” ‘Ago’ is used as = “duco” in a different sense 2. 441., 10. 514.

[531] Scopulo atque, &c., like “saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis” 9. 569, where, as here, ‘atque’ introduces a new element in the description. ‘Turbine,’ of the whirl of a missile, 11. 284, &c. Murranus is struck down from his chariot by a stone like Kebriones, Il. 16. 739: he is “ingens atque ingenti volnere victus” (v. 640 below), as Kebriones κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί, Il. 16. 776.

[532, 533] Excutit, strikes him down from the chariot: Med. has ‘excipit,’ perhaps from v. 507 above. ‘Hunc lora,’ &c. is explained by Heyne in a very tortuous manner: “et lora et rotae eum provolverunt subter iuga, currum.” The natural order is, ‘hunc rotae provolverunt subter lora et iuga:’ i. e., as he lies under the yoke the horses trample on him and drag the whecls over him. ‘Subter’ is applied to ‘lora’ by a kind of zeugma: he is entangled in the reins, which were probably round his body as he drove: see on v. 469. Peerlkamp takes ‘lora’ of the traces. Virg. describes the action in the wrong order; the horses would go over him before the wheels, if he were lying ‘iuga subter.’ For ‘super ungula pulsu,’ the MSS. of Priscian 772 give “quatit ungula cursu:” comp. 8. 596. For ‘super’ Med. a m. p. has ‘snotant,’ perhaps for ‘sonat’ (comp. G. 3. 88), as Wagn. suggests. Τὸν μὲν Ἀχαιῶν ἵπποι ἐπισσώτροις δατέοντο Πρώτῃ ἐν ὑσμίνῃ, Il. 20. 394.

[534] Incita v. 492 above. ‘Nec’ might possibly be taken as simply =“non,” an archaic and to some extent classical usage illustrated by Ribbeck, Lateinische Partikeln p. 24—26, and by Munro on Lucr. 2.23 (3rd ed.). See also Madvig De Fin. p. 803 foll. (2nd ed.). But it is perhaps better to give it its ordinary meaning, considering the clause ‘nec domini memorum equorum’ as an artificial continuation of ‘incita,’ which, if the sentence were more simply written, would agree with ‘equorum.’—In Lucr. 6.1214neque se possent cognoscere ut ipsi,” and Lucilius 1. 12 (Müller) (quoted by Munro l. c.), ‘neque’ might be taken as = “ne quidem.” For the form of the parenthetical sentence with ‘nec,’ comp. E. 9. 6, “Hos illi, quod nec vertat bene, mittimus haedos.

[535] Ille, Turnus. ‘Hylo’ Med. a m. s., and so Gud. with two other of Ribbeck's cursives. For the hiatus comp. 10. 136, v. 31 above. ‘Animis frementem’ v. 371 above. This passage is condensed from Il. 20. 397 foll. (of Demoleon's death), Νύξε κατὰ κρόταφον, κυνέης διὰ χαλκοπαρῄου. Οὐδ᾽ ἄρα χαλκείη κόρυς ἔσχεθεν, ἀλλὰ δἰ αὐτῆς Αἰχμὴ ἱεμένη ῥῆξ ὀστέον, ἐγκέφαλος δὲ Ἔνδον ἅπας πεπάλακτο. Comp. Il. 11. 95 foll.

[536] Schrader conjectures ‘aerata’ for ‘aurata.’ But the helmet is of gold as in 9. 50 (Forb.).

[537] Comp. 11. 817, “Ferreus ad costas alto stat volnere mucro.

[538] ‘Creteu’ Pal. and Gud., and so Heyne. A Cretheus was killed by Turnus, 9. 774. The name is Homeric: Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, was wife of Cretheus, Od. 11. 237. ‘Graium:’ he was probably, as Heyne suggests, an Arcadian.

[539] “Sane sciendum Cupencum Sabinorum lingua sacerdotem vocari: ut apud Romanos Flaminem et Pontificem, sacerdotem: sunt autem Cupenci Herculis sacerdotes. Ergo quod huic proprium nomen de sacerdote pinxit, bene dixitnec di texere sui,” Serv. It seems therefore unnecessary to take ‘sui’ as=‘propitious.’

[541] Aeris all Ribbeck's MSS. and all those of Pierius. ‘Aerei’ has been read ever since the first Aldine ed. Wagn. not very happily conj. ‘profit et aeris.’ ‘Mora clipei’ like “loricae moras” 10. 485.

[542] The style is like 10. 139, “Te quoque magnanimae viderunt, Ismare, gentes Volnera dirigere,” &c. ‘Campis’ Med. originally.

[543] “Concidere atque graviterram consternere casu,” of beasts falling wounded, Lucr. 5.1333. Heyne quotes Il. 7. 156, Πολλὸς γάρ τις ἔκειτο παρήορος ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα. Some inferior copies have ‘lato’ for ‘late.

[544] The feeling of these lines is like that of 10. 430, “Et vos, o Graiis inperdita corpora, Teucri.

[546] Comp. Il. 20. 389 foll., Κεῖσαι, Ὀτρυντείδη, πάντων ἐκπαγλότατ᾽ ἀνδρῶν: Ἐνθάδε τοι θάνατος: γενεὴ δέ τοί ἐστ᾽ ἐπὶ λίμνῃ Γυγαίῃ, ὅθι τοι τέμενος πατρώϊόν ἐστιν. ‘Mortis metae,’ a refinement on the Homeric θανάτοιο τέλος: this use of the gen. is common. ‘Alta,’ noble: see on 10. 126. ‘Domus,’ &c.: thy house was under Ida, thy tomb in the Laurentian soil. Ribbeck's punctuation, a colon after ‘metae,’ a comma after ‘Ida,’ is better than the converse, which is Heyne's.

[547] Lyrnesi, locative. About Lyrnesus see on 10. 128.

[548] Adeo with ‘totae,’ ‘even all.’ ‘Conversae:’ after the alternate pursuit and flight described v. 368—506, both armies are turned to a general and obstinate engagement. Heyne, following Serv., says ‘conversae’ = “conversae inter se,συστρεφθέντες: but ‘converti’ when used of troops implies not merely rallying (συστρέφεσθαι) but an entire change of movement (see Forc.).

[549, 550] “Mnestheus acerque Serestus” 9. 171. “Mnestheus, et fortis Asilas, Et Messapus equum domitor, Neptunia proles,” v. 127 above. For the lengthening of the last syllable of ‘domitor,’ see Excursus on this book.

[551] “Tyrrhenique duces Euandrique Arcades alae” 11. 835. ‘Arcadis’ was the reading before Heins. ‘Alae’ properly used of cavalry.

[552] Pro se quisque, as in 5. 501 = every one doing his best. Mr. Long comp. Caesar B.G.2.25. ‘Summa nituntur opum vi’ is from Enn. (see Macrob. 6. 1), in whose fragments we have it twice: A. 168, “Romani scalis summa nituntur opum vi,” and ib. 404, “Aedificant nomen: summa nituntur opum vi.” “Summaque evertere opum vi” 9. 532.

[553] Nec mora, nec requies, 5. 458. ‘Tendunt’ = “contendunt” as 2. 220 al.

[554-592] ‘Aeneas, at the suggestion of Venus, suddenly turns his forces upon the city itself. The people within the walls are thrown into confusion.’

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