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[81] As Heyne remarks, it is curious, and perhaps a mark of the unfinished state of this part of the poem, that Turnus and Aeneas should be made to arm themselves and prepare for the battle on the day preceding it. Wagn. very unnaturally makes ‘rapidusque in tecta recessit’ the beginning of the apodosis to ‘haec ubi dicta dedit.’ None of the passages which he quotes, Q. V. 35. 6, really prove his point. ‘Dedit’ and ‘recessit’ are perfects, naturally followed by the pres. ‘poscit:’ comp. 6. 746., 9. 432, and other instances given by Wagn., Q. V. 7. 7.

[82] Ante ora is strangely taken by Gossr. of the horses' mouths: “der Schaum stand ihnen vor dem Munde.” The alternative is not, as he supposes, to couple ‘tuens ante ora,’ as ‘ante ora frementis’ means snorting before him.

[83] Orithyia was wife of Boreas: carried off by him from Attica to Thrace (G. 4. 63, &c.); and Boreas, Il. 20. 223 foll., is the father of the royal horses of Troy, as Zephyrus, Il. 16. 150 foll., is the father of Achilles' steeds, Xanthus and Balius (Heyne). How the Thracian Orithyia was connected with the Italian Pilumnus is a point which puzzled the critics as early as the time of Serv., and which has not been cleared up since. “Maroni est merum ornamentum ac figmentum poeticum,” says Heyne. ‘Ipsa,’ as in 1. 589, denoting that the gift came direct from the goddess. With the whole passage comp. 11. 657, “Quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla Delegit.” ‘Decus’ = ἄγαλμα, Il. 4. 144.

[84] Λευκότεροι χιόνος, θείειν δ᾽ ἀνέμοισιν ὁμοῖοι, Il. 10. 437. ‘Cursibus’ as in G. 3. 20, 119, 193.

[85] Propere Rom. and originally Gud. ‘Properi’ is confirmed by Serv. ‘Lacesso,’ to excite by striking, as often in Lucretius, of things striking the senses.

[86] Pulsa Gud. “Plausae sonitum cervicis amareG. 3. 186, which illustrates the tense of ‘plausa.

[87] “Tunicam squalentem auro” 10. 314. The word ‘orichalcus’ (ὀρείχαλκος) appears in Latin to have been applied to a kind of brass of much the same appearance as gold. In Plaut. (Mil. 3. 1. 69, Pseud. 2. 3. 22, Curc. 1. 3. 45) it is written ‘aurichalcus,’—perhaps from a misunderstanding of the etymology of the Greek word,—and is spoken of as a precious metal: comp. Plato, Critias p. 114 E, of the mythical ὀρείχαλκος: Τὸ νῦν ὀνομαζόμενον μόνον τότε δὲ πλέον ὀνόματος ἦν τὸ γένος ἐκ γῆς ὀρυττόμενον ὀρειχάλκου . . . πλὴν χρυσοῦ τιμιώτατον ἐν :τοῖς τοτε ὄν. So Pliny, 34. 2, “aurichalco, quod praecipuam bonitatem admirationemque diu obtinuit, nec reperitur longo iam tempore effeta tellure.” Cic., however (de Off. 3. 23 fin.), speaks of ‘orichalcus’ as of a still existing metal, which might, as far as appearance went, be taken for gold: comp. Sueton. (Vitellius 5), who implies that it stood to gold as tin to silver. Whether Virg. meant this common orichalcus or the more precious metal of fable (“ὀρειχάλκοιο φαεινοῦApoll. R. 4. 973) is doubtful, especially as he has given it the epithet ‘albus,’ which would not strictly suit either. ‘Albus’ must either = ‘pale’ (in comParison with the gold) or ‘shining.’ Horace, A. P. 202, writes like Virg. ‘ŏrĭchalco:’ so Val. Flacc. 3. 61, Stat. Theb. 10. 660, ‘ŏrĭchalca’ (neut. pl.). The arming of Patroclus is described Il. 16. 630 foll. in the same order, but at greater length.

[88] Habendo = “ad habendum” (Serv.). This is better than taking it (with Forb.) as = “dum habet.” Comp. “habilem aptarat” 9. 305.

[89] Ensemque clipeumque. This lengthening of the first ‘que’ in arsis (in imitation of the Homeric lengthening of τε in similar circumstances) is a licence not indulged in by any Roman poet before Virg. See Excursus to this book. The ‘cornua’ of a helmet appear to have been projections in which the crest was fixed: comp. Livy 27. 33, “In arborem illatus impetu equi ad eminentem ramum cornu alterum galeae perfregit.” (Fore.) Serv. strangely explains it of the horsehair itself: saying that ‘cornu’ properly means a curl, and comparing κέρας. Cerda well compares A. 6. 780, “Viden' ut geminae stant vertice cristae.” “Cristaque tegit galea aurea rubra” of Turnus 9. 50.

[91] Tinxerat, as in 8. 450, “Alii stridentia tinguunt Aera lacu.” The Stygian water charmed the sword: see v. 736 below.

[92] Med. and Rom. have ‘columnae,’ Gud. ‘columna,’ and so originally another of Ribbeck's cursives, supported by Arusianus, p. 215, “Adnixus hac re: Virg. in 12, ‘ingenti adnixa columna.” Probably Ribbeck is right in reading ‘columna’ on this authority, especially as Virg. is fond of rare uses of the abl. See on 10. 361. Serv. thinks that ‘ingenti’ suggests the size of the spear. Cerda comp. Od. 1. 127, Ἔγχος μέν ῤ̔ ἔστησε φέρων πρὸς κίονα μακρήν. Comp. ib. 17. 29.

[93] Adstabat stood there ready for him: though it may refer, like ‘adnixa,’ to closeness to the pillar.

[94] Actoris spolium, the spoil taken from Actor: comp. “spoliis meorum” 12. 947. The Aurunci (7. 127) are allies of Turnus in this war: Heyne, Exc. 7 on Bk. 7, supposes from this passage that Turnus had conquered part of them. “Actoris Aurunci spolium” Juv. 2. 100. among other imitations of Virg. in that satire (see v. 81, 85, 150—152).

[95] Comp. for the thought 10. 773 foll.

[96] Heins. conj. ‘Nunc (tempus) ades.’ ‘Te maxumus Actor:’ understand “antea gessit:” Wagn. well comp. G. 2. 1, “Hactenus arvorum cultus et sidera caeli, Nunc te, Bacche, canam:” where see note. Ribbeck would prefer “non maxumus Actor.

[98] Comp. Il. 2. 416, Ἑκτόρεον δὲ χιτῶνα περὶ στήθεσσι δαΐξαι Χαλκῷ ῥωγαλέον. ‘Revolsam’ torn open: “foribus revolsis” 8. 262.

[99] With this and the following line, comp. 4. 215, 216 notes. Here the words are Hom.'s: Il. 16. 795 (of Patroclus' helmet), Μιάνθησαν δὲ ἔθειραι Αἵματι καὶ κονίῃσι. (Germ.) Comp. ib. 22. 401 foll.

[100] Vibratos curled: Forb. comp. Pliny 2. 80, “Namque Aethiopas vicini sideris vapore torreri adustisque similes gigni, barba et capillo vibrato non est dubium.” “Madidus murra crinis” Ov. M. 3. 553. (Forb.) Πλόκοςκτενισμοῖς θῆλυς, Eur. Electr. 529. ‘Cadentis’ Pal. and originally Gud. for ‘madentis.

[102] ‘Existunt’ Rom. ‘Absiliunt’ the second Hamb. MS., “quod valde placet,” says Ribbeck. Wakef. had already called it an “indubitabilis lectio.” ‘Scintillae absistunt’ is rather an exaggerated description. Virg. was perhaps thinking of Il. 19. 16, ἐν δέ οἱ ὄσσε Δεινὸν ὑπὸ βλεφάρων, ὡσεὶ σέλας, ἐξεφάανθεν of Achilles looking at his arms. Germ. comp. Lucr. 3.288, “Est etenim calor ille animo quem sumit, in ira Cum fervescit et ex oculis micat acribus ardor.

[103] Primam Med. a m. p., perhaps (as Wagn. says) due to the following ‘in:’ ‘primum’ Rom. ‘Prima’ adverbial: comp. 5. 857, “Vix primos inopina quies laxaverat artus:” 8. 288, “ut prima novercae Monstra . . eliserit:” 561, “cum primam aciem Praeneste sub ipsa Stravi:” 7. 601 foll. “Mos erat Hesperio in Latio . . . cum prima movent in proelia Martem:” v. 735 below, “Cum prima in proelia iunctos Conscendebat equos” (of Turnus). So Lucr. 2.1080, “In primis animalibus . . . invenies.” With ‘in proelia’ comp. “meditantem in proelia” 10. 455.

[104-106] Nearly repeated from G. 3. 232—234, where see notes.

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