Astra sequi pennis like “sidera voce sequentem” 10. 193 note. ‘Clausumve’ Pal. and Menag. pr., and so Heyne and Ribbeck: ‘clausumque,’ which is more idiomatic, Med., Rom., Gud., with two other of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Que’ is defended by Wagn. Q. V. 36. 10, who rightly adopts it: see on 10. 709, where there is a precisely similar case, and where, as here, Ribbeck follows Pal. in reading ‘ve.’
 Ὦ πόποι, ἦ μάλα δή με θεοὶ θάνατόνδε κάλεσσαν, says Hector, Il. 22. 297: but the language more nearly recalls Il. 17. 175, where Hector says, in answer to the reproaches of Glaucus, Οὔτοε ἐγὼ ἔρ᾽ῥιγα μάχην, οὐδὲ κτύπον ἵππων: Ἀλλ᾽ αἰεί γε Διὸς κρείσσων νόος αἰγιόχοιο, Ὅς τε καὶ ἄλκιμον ἄνδρα φοβεῖ &c.; and 16. 844, where Patroclus says to Hector, Ἤδη νῦν, Ἕκτορ, μεγάλ᾽ εὔχεο: σοὶ γὰρ ἔδωκε Νίκην Ζεὺς Κρονίδης καὶ Ἀπόλλων, οἵ με δάμασσαν Ῥηϊδίως. See also Il. 13. 811-12.
[896-898] This passage is modelled partly on Il. 21. 403 foll. (of Athene in the battle of the gods), Ἡ δ᾽ ἀναχασσαμένη λίθον εἵλετο χειρὶ παχείῃ Κείμενον ἐν πεδίῳ, μέλανα, τρηχύν τε μέγαν τε, Τόν ῤ̔ ἄνδρες πρότεροι θέσαν ἔμμεναι οὖρον ἀρούρης: partly on Il. 12. 445 foll., where Hector easily brandishes a stone which two men of a later age could hardly lift on to a waggon. Comp. Il. 5. 303 foll., where this language is slightly varied. Wagn. was inclined to object to the repetition of ‘ingens,’ which is however by no means pointless. In v. 897 Goth. pr. and some inferior copies have ‘qui,’ and so apparently Serv., who quotes from Sallust (Cat. 55), “locus in carcere quod Tullianum appellatur.” Heins. first restored ‘quod,’ which has both authority and grammar in its favour. Med. a m. p. gives ‘q.,’ a m. s. ‘quod.’ ‘Litem ut discerneret arvis’ is difficult, as ‘discernere’ does not often bear the sense of ‘decernere.’ Forc. quotes Calp. Ecl. 2. 27, “Nec mora, discernunt digitis, prior incipit Idas:” and Nemes. Ecl. 1 (or Calp. 8). 52, “ruricolum discernere lites.” ‘Arvis’ might be taken either as dative (‘for’ = ‘concerning’) or as abl. (‘in’). It is quite possible that Virg., after his fashion, meant to suggest two phrases, “decernere litem” and “discernere arva.”
 Illum for ‘illud’ Med., with one of Ribbeck's cursives: so the MSS. of Augustine de Civ. Dei 15. 9. Τὸν δ᾽ οὔ κε δὔ ἀνέρε δήμου ἀρίστω Ῥηϊδίως ἐπ᾽ ἄμαξαν ἀπ᾽ οὔδεος ὀχλίσσειαν Οἷοι νῦν βροτοί εἰσι, Il. 12. 447 foll. In Apollonius R. 3. 1365 four youths could hardly lift the stone a finger's breadth from the ground.
 Virg. amplifies Homer's οἷοι νῦν &c., by bringing in the notion of the earth's motherhood, so copiously illustrated by Lucr. 5.820 foll. The idea developed there is that the earth's productive force, like a woman's, wears out with continued child-bearing, and that her later offspring is therefore weaker and punier than the earlier: “Sed quia finem aliquam pariendi debet habere, Destitit, ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto” v. 826-7 (where see Munro). Comp. also the language of 2. 1150 foll., “Iamque adeo fracta est aetas, effetaque tellus Vix animalia parva creat, quae cuncta creavit.” The language here recalls Lucr. 2.589, “Tellus habet in se corpora prima.”
[901, 902] Torquebat: “bene imperfecto usus est tempore, quia non est perfectum quod voluit” Serv. ‘Ille—heros:’ so Il. 5. 308, Αὐτὰρ ὅγ᾽ ἥρως Ἔστη γνὺξ ἐριπών. With ‘altior insurgens’ comp. “arduus insurgens” 11. 755, “altior exsurgens” ib. 697. ‘Cursu concitus,’ running at full speed.
 Τὸν δ᾽ ἄτη φρένας εἷλε, λύθεν δ᾽ ὑπὸ φαίδιμα γυῖα, Στῆ δὲ ταφών &c. of Patroclus when disarmed by Apollo Il. 16. 805. But Virg. is more minute and delicate in his description. ‘Currentem—euntem,’ whether he runs or moves. Peerlkamp's tasteless conjecture ‘eundem’ would add nothing to the sense. ‘Se cognoscere’ Lucr. 6.1214.
 The readings vary much in this line. ‘Tollentemque’ Med. with Gud. originally, and another of Ribbeck's cursives: ‘tollentemve’ Pal. and Rom., with Gud. corrected. Then Med., Rom., and originally Gud. give ‘manus:’ Pal. ‘manu,’ and so two of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Manu’ Heyne, Wagn., Forb., and Gossr.: ‘manus’ Ribbeck, more rightly: for Virg. is obviously wishing to describe every movement of Turnus: ‘currentem,’ ‘euntem,’ ‘tollentem manus,’ ‘saxum moventem;’ and ‘tollentem manu saxum et moventem’ would only describe one movement, and that by a somewhat meaningless repetition of words. Finally Gud. and one of Ribbeck's cursives give ‘saxumque’ for ‘saxumve,’ and so Heyne, Wagn., &c., against the decided balance of authority: ‘saxumve,’ rightly, Ribbeck. For ‘moventem’ Pal. originally had ‘movebat.’
[906, 907] Ipse, even the stone fails to do its work. ‘Lapis viri’ = “lapis a viro proiectus” (Forbiger). ‘Inane’ (the Lucretian and Ciceronian word for ‘void’) used of the air, as in v. 354 above. “Non per inane meat vacuum” Lucr. 2.151. Serv. wished wrongly to join ‘totum’ with ‘ictum.’ ‘Pertulit ictum’ like “vires non pertulit” 10. 786. ‘Nec pertulit’ Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives, and so Heyne.
 The hint for this simile is given Il. 22. 199 foll., Ὡς δ᾽ ἐν ὀνείρῳ οὐ δύναται φεύγοντα διώκειν, Οὔτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὁ τὸν δύναται ὑποφεύγειν, οὔθ᾽ ὁ διώκειν, Ὣς ὁ τὸν οὐ δύνατο μάρψαι ποσίν, οὐδ᾽ ὃς ἀλύξαι. The rhythm and language recall Lucr. 4.453 foll., “Denique cum suavi devinxit membra sopore Somnus, et in summa corpus iacet omne quiete, Tum vigilare tamen nobis et membra movere Nostra videmur” &c. “In somnis” is also a favourite phrase of Lucr.: see Munro on 3. 431. ‘Pressit:’ 6. 521, “Pressit iacentem Dulcis et alta quies.”
 Extendere cursus is somewhat different from Hom.'s τείνειν δρόμον, which is explained as = ‘to run a hot race’ (Il. 23. 375, 758, &c.). Lucr. 5. 631 has “tendere cursum” = to move along a course. ‘Extendere,’ to continue, stretch farther. Δρόμον ὠκὺν ἐκτανύειν Anacreont. 8. 5 (Heinrich).
[913, 914] Quamcumque Pal. originally. ‘Tum pectore’ &c. Heyne thinks = “vertit, versat, varia consilia, sensus, animo Turnus.” But this does not do justice either to ‘sensus’ or to ‘vertuntur:’ the meaning is rather ‘his feelings shift in distraction.’ ‘Adspectare’ of a longing gaze, as in G. 3. 228., A. 5. 615.
 Comp. Il. 22. 293 foll. (of Hector), Στῆ δὲ κατηφήσας, οὐδ᾽ ἄλλ᾽ ἔχε μείλινον ἔγχος, Δηΐφοβον δ᾽ ἐκάλει λευκάσπιδα, μακρὸν ἀΰσας, Ἤιτεέ μιν δόρυ μακρόν: ὁ δ᾽ οὔτι οἱ ἐγγύθεν ἦεν. ‘Letum’ Pal. and the MSS. of Rufinianus, p. 258 R.: so Ribbeck: ‘telum’ Med., Rom., Gud., and so Heyne and Wagn. ‘Telum’ is better in itself, and is confirmed by the parody of Ausonius, Cent. Nupt. 92. ‘Instare:’ a prose writer would probably have used a participle for this infinitive.
 Aurigamve Med., Pal., and one of Ribbeck's cursives: so Heyne and Ribbeck, probably rightly: ‘aurigamque’ Rom. and Gud., followed by Wagn. Juturna corresponds in some measure to Deiphobus in Il. l. c.