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[148] Cum prima is to be taken as “cum primum.” With the different parts of the line comp. 5. 42., 4. 6.

[149] Orta dies, 12. 114. With ‘urbem et finis et litora gentis’ comp. “moenia gentis” above v. 131.

[150] Diversi of persons 9. 416. Comp. v. 132 above. Three parties are sent out, as this and the following line show. With ‘haec fontis stagna’ &c. comp. 2. 29, “Hic Dolopum manus” &c. There seems to be no means of choosing between ‘Numicî’ and ‘Numici,’ both the forms ‘Numicius’ and ‘Numicus’ (Sil. 8. 179) being found: Sil. however may have altered the form to suit his metre. The position of the Numicius is much disputed (v. Heyne Excurs. 3 on this book, with Wagn.'s additions). Westphal and Bunbury, approved by Mr. Long, identify it with Rio Torto (see Dict. G. ‘Numicius’): others apparently make it the Rio di Turno, a smaller stream in the same neighbourhood, near Lavinium, Wagn. believes the ‘fontis stagna Numici’ to be the Stagno di Levante, not far from the ancient channel of the Tiber, partly on the strength of vv. 241, 747, where the Tiber and Numicius are mentioned together, a conjunction which may be explained by the historical connexion, without supposing immediate local proximity. It was in the Numicius that Aeneas ultimately perished in his war with the Rutuli, and on it was his shrine or tomb (Livy 1. 2); which again is in favour of a stream near Lavinium as against one close to the Tiber.

[152] Tum satus Anchisa 5. 244, 424. “‘Ordine ab omni:ex omni qualitate dignitatum: quod apud Romanos in legatione mittenda hodieque servatur,” Serv. Comp. however 11. 331. Lersch § 53 remarks that the number sent here and 11. 331 is much larger than any known to have been sent by the Romans, who seem from Livy generally to have sent three: he suggests however that the number may have been taken from the hundred senators of Romulus, or may be the number ten (which he argues from Livy 33. 24., 37. 55 to have been the ancient number of an embassy) multiplied into itself, and remarks generally on Virg.'s partiality for the number 100.

[153] Oratores, 8. 505., 11. 100, 331. It was an old Roman word for an ambassador: see Varro L. L. 7. 3, § 41, where Ennius is quoted, Cic. 2 Legg. 9. ‘Moenia regis,’ Laurentum, v. 63.

[154] “Velati ramis oleae” 11. 101. The expression seems parallel to ἱκτηρίοις κλάδοισιν ἐξεστεμμένοι Soph. O. T. 3, which is now generally understood as = κλάδους ἐξεστεμμένους ἔχοντες. The token of peace was an olive-branch borne in the hand, 8. 116, 128., 11. 333, sometimes wreathed with wool (8. 128). To this wreathing ἐξεστεμμένοι is generally understood to refer: and the same may be the case with ‘velatos.’ “Velamenta” is the regular term for tokens of supplication, Livy 24. 30., 29. 16., 30. 36., 35. 34, cited by Lersch § 52, and Plaut. Amph. 1. 1. 101 has “velatis manibus orant.” But the “velatio” may be merely the covering afforded by the leaves of the boughs: an interpretation which would agree with some words in Livy 30. 36, “velata infulis ramisque oleae Carthaginiensium occurrit navis,” and with the use of “velare” in Virg. (note on 2. 249). There is a sort of parallel ambiguity in the Greek use of στέφος &c.: see Conington on Aesch. Cho. 95. ‘Rami Palladis,’ G. 2. 181.

[155] Dona: comp. 11. 333. ‘Viro’ seems added to bring out the honour intended to Latinus. ‘Pacem exposcere,’ 3. 261. ‘Pacem’ to be taken strictly, not, as Heyne, i. q. “foedus et amicitiam.” Landing as strangers on the coast, they were liable, according to the practice of antiquity, to be treated as enemies.

[156] Festinant iussi, they hasten their mission.

[157] For the custom of solemnly tracing out the site of cities comp. 5. 755 note. ‘Humili,’ shallow. Tac. A. 1. 61 has “humili fossa,” and Pliny Ep. 8. 20. 5 “humili radice.” Comp. the double sense of “altus.” This first settlement, distinct from Lavinium, was part of the common version of the legend: see Lewis p. 332. According to Cato ap. Serv. and Livy 1. 1 it bore the name of Troia.

[158] Molitur locum, breaks ground, by digging entrenchments and foundation. Comp. G. 1. 494, “Agricola incurvo terram molitus aratro.” ‘Moliri’ is used for the same thing above v. 127. ‘Primas’ of the first settlement, not, as Heyne, i. q. “primo litore,” on the edge of the shore. So “prima tecta” v. 127 above.

[159] Castrorum in morem, i. e. like a Roman camp, with its fossa, agger, and vallum, and its internal divisions and arrangements, including the praetorium in the centre, 9. 230. The site chosen also seems to have been one which a Roman strategist would have approved, the camp being defended on one side and at the same time supplied with water by the river. See Lersch § 44. Virg.'s castrimetation, like his discipline and tactics, is that of his own, not of the heroic age. ‘Pinnae’ are taken by Lersch as i. q. “vallum;” they are distinguished from “vallum” however by Caes. B. G. 7. 72 (comp. ib. 5. 40), and appear from Varro L. L. 5. 142 (Müller) to have been the battlements of a wall or parapet. Mr. Long thinks that as Virg. does not mention the “vallum” he means the ‘pinnae’ to include all that is placed on the ‘agger.

[160-194] ‘The ambassadors arrive, and are admitted to an audience of king Latinus, who is sitting in an ancient temple, adorned with figures of his divine and human ancestors.’

[160] Iter emensi, 11. 244. ‘Turris ac tecta,’ 12. 132. ‘Et tecta’ is here the first reading of Med. and Gud. For ‘Latinorum’ Med. from a correction and others have ‘Latini,’ obviously a change to get rid of the hypermeter: see on v. 237 below, 6. 33. So some give ‘Latinum.’ ‘Latinorum’ is supported by Serv., as well as by Med. originally, Pal., Rom. &c.

[161] Muroque subibant, 9. 371, where as here there is a reading ‘murosque,’ supported here by Rom. Serv. distinctly acknowledges the dative. Comp. 3. 292. Wagn. makes a doubtful distinction between “subire loco,” to approach, and “subire locum,” to enter a place. Gud. has a variant ‘propinquant.

[162] This picture was probably suggested by the Campus Martius: but there was a similar public ground for exercise (προαστεῖον) before other cities. Heyne comp. Hesiod, Shield 285, τοὶ δ᾽ αὖ προπάροιθε πόληος Νῶθ᾽ ἵππων ἐπιβάντες ἐθύνεον.

[163] “Exercentur agris,G. 4. 159, of the bees. Here ‘equis’ is abl. instr. Elsewhere (v. 782 below) the man is said to exercise the horses. ‘Currus:’ the car is said to be broken in, as in G. 1. 514, not to hear the reins. So 12. 287, “Infrenant alii currus.

[164, 5] Virg. first enumerates the several parties, ‘autaut’ (comp. G. 4. 167), then passes into a description of the various occupations of the whole, ‘queque.’ “Intendunt acris arcus” 9. 665. The epithet seems nearly = “durus,” but with a greater notion of activity, as if the bow had an energy of its own. Perhaps a contrast is intended with ‘lenta spicula’ (“lenta hastilia” 11. 650., 12. 489), the darts being regarded as passive and owing their force to the arm that bends them. ‘Lenta’ itself would most naturally mean flexible. ‘Contorquent,’ 12. 490., 2. 52 note. ‘Ictu’ is commonly explained = “iaculatione,” after Serv., denoting aiming at a mark: but it might equally well stand for boxing, of which “icere” is used (comp. 5. 377, 428, 444, 457, 459), and tautology would thus be avoided. ‘Lacessunt (alius alium) cursu’ like “provocare beneficio,” “bello.” So “contendere cursu.

[166, 167] Cum refers to ‘iamque’ v. 160, the words ‘antelacessunt’ being parenthetical. ‘As they approached the city, one of the party of youths whom they found exercising before the walls galloped off to announce their arrival.’ Wagn. thinks that ‘re’ in ‘reportat’ and similar words denotes the representation or repetition by the messenger of what he has seen or heard; but it seems more natural to say that the words were originally applied to one sent to fetch tidings, and thence to all who brought tidings, whether they had been sent to fetch them or not. ‘Praevectus’ riding in advance of the rest. ‘Ad auris’ with ‘reportat.’ “Referatis ad aurisE. 3. 73. On ‘ingentis’ Serv. remarks, “Ex stupore nuntii laus ostenditur Troianorum: et bene novitatis ostendit opinionem: ingentis enim esse quos primum vidimus opinamur.” ‘In veste,’ 4. 518.

[168] Intra tecta vocari Inperat: comp. 1. 520, “Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi.” ‘Tecta’ is explained by v. 170.

[169] Solio avito, as well as ‘regia Pici,’ seems inconsistent with v. 61 foll., where Latinus himself is made the founder of Laurentum. ‘Medius’ = “mediis tectis.” Comp. 1. 505 note. The description there, where Dido receives the Trojans in the temple, is closely parallel to this.

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