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[170] This edifice combines the temple and the senate-house. Virg. has also employed it as a sort of museum of Roman antiquities. Some have thought that he had in his mind the temple of Apollo built by Augustus close to his own house on the Palatine, where he often convoked the Senate. Embassies in particular were constantly received in temples, especially in that of Bellona, which was outside the walls, Livy 30. 21, Festus s. v. “Senacula.” See Lersch § 15. ‘Augustus’ (connected with “augurium”) is nearly equivalent to “sanctus,” Ov. F. 1. 609. “Sublimibus alta columnis” Ov. M. 2. 1.

[171] Urbe summa, ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει, for which ἐν πόλει ἀκροτάτῃ occurs Il. 22. 172. Some inferior MSS. and Diomedes p. 498 read ‘media,’ from 1. 441. ‘Regia,’ his hall of state, where he sate as king.

[172] Silvis, the sacred grove round the temple. For such groves round temples in cities comp. 1. 441., 9. 86. ‘Horrendum silvis et religione parentum’ is equivalent to “cinctum silvis horrendis et religiosis,” ‘religione’ probably referring to the awful antiquity of the grove. So on 8. 598, “lucusreligione patrum late sacer.” For ‘horrendum’ comp. Lucan 3. 411, “Arboribus suus horror inest.

[173, 174] Primos is for “primum.” ‘Attollere fasces,’ to have the fasces raised or borne before them. Comp. the opposite phrase “submittere fasces.” ‘Omen erat,’ it was a custom without observing which the reign would not have commenced auspiciously: not merely, it was a lucky thing to do it. ‘Here each king, as he would have a happy reign, assumed the sceptre and the fasces.’ The assumption of the sceptre and fasces would of course be the coronation of a Roman king. ‘Hic’ is the emphatic word: the coronation, to be auspicious, was to take place here.

[175] For ‘hae’ Rom. has ‘haec,’ which may be plural. ‘Sacrae epulae,’ otherwise “epulum,” a banquet given in honour of a god, to attend to which was the business of the “epulones.” ‘Ariete caeso,’ after the sacrifice. ‘Perpetuis mensis’ is explained by Heyne as long tables, at which they sat in an unbroken row (comp. “perpetui tergo bovis” 8. 183, “perpetuas ollas,” a continuous row of “ollae” in a Roman tomb, Fabretti Inscr. p. 11 ed. 1699, a reference suggested by Mr. Long), opposed to the “triclinia.” The practice appears to be primitive, as well as ‘considere’ instead of “accumbere.” Ov. F. 6. 305, “Ante focos olim scamnis considere longis Mos erat, et mensae credere adesse deos.” There seems no need to suppose an allusion to the daily entertainment of privileged persons as in a Prytaneum: the reference is rather to an occasional sacrificial banquet.

[177] Ex ordine, in a row, between the pillars of the portico. They are not in the order of succession. See vv. 45 foll. Professor Seeley, Introduction to Livy p. 19, notices this passage as a remarkable instance of Euhemerism: the gods of Italy being identified with ancient kings.

[178] The reading before Heins. was ‘ex cedro.’ Some copies leave out the preposition. Wood was the material of statues before marble, and cedar was chosen as the most durable wood. “Tunc melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus” Tibull. 1. 10. 19. Mr. Long refers to Pausanias 8. 17. 2, τοῖς δὲ ἀνθρώποις τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ὁπόσα καὶ ἡμεῖς καταμαθεῖν ἐδυνήθημεν, τοσάδε ἦν ἀφ᾽ ὧν τὰ ξόανα ἐποιοῦντο, ἔβενος, κυπάρισσος, αἱ κέδροι, τὰ δρύϊνα, σμίλαξ, λωτός. This mixture of the eponyms and gods of different races, Italus, Sabinus, Saturnus, Janus, goes to prove that Virg. was rather a lover of antiquity than an accurate antiquarian, as some have considered him. Italus has been referred to 1. 533: see further Lewis vol. 1. pp. 276—279. Sabinus, according to Cato ap. Dionys. H. 2. 49, was the son of Sancus, who is generally identified with the “dius Fidius.” The hiatus after ‘cedro’ is Greek.

[179] Vitisator is applied to Bacchus in a fragment of Attius quoted by Macrob. Sat. 6. 5. “Vitis satorLucr. 2.1168. The pruning-hook is elsewhere the familiar attribute of Saturn, G. 2. 406, and Peerlkamp wishes to re-arrange the passage so as to invest him with it here. But the Sabines were wine-growers. ‘Curvam servans sub imagine falcem,’ holding as a statue (‘sub imagine’ comp. 6. 293) the pruning-hook which he held in life.

[180] For Saturnus and Janus see Dict. M.

[181] This and what follows open a vista of previous history far more extensive than what is sketched in vv. 45 foll. It is probably not without reference to the feelings of Augustus that Virg. gave this picture of national and patriotic glory and senatorial dignity under a monarchical rule. ‘Ab origine,’ 1. 642. Comp. the word “Aborigines.

[182] This line is nearly a repetition of 6. 660, “Hic manus ob patriam pugnando volnera passi.” ‘Martiaque’ fragm. Vat. (2nd reading), Pal., Rom., Gud., ‘Martia qui’ fragm. Vat. (1st reading), Med. Comp. 6. 772. The former reading is more harmonious and better suited to the sense, distinguishing the warriors from the kings, who seem to have been mainly peaceful. With ‘Martia volnera’ comp. Ἀρηΐφατος.

[183] Sacris in postibus arma. Comp. 3. 287., 5. 360. ‘In postibus’ = “in foribus.”

[184] Captivi pendent currus. The ancient chariots were so light that Diomed (Il. 10. 505) thinks of carrying off that of Rhesus on his shoulder. ‘Captivi’ of things 2. 765. The ‘securis,’ battleaxe, was the weapon of Asiatic nations (“Amazonia securis” Hor. 4 Od. 4. 20) and of the primitive nations of Europe, in whose barrows it is often found. It is the weapon of the Italian shepherds, below v. 510., 12. 306, and of Camilla 11. 696. ‘Curvae’ from the shape of the axe-head.

[185] Cristae capitum like “iubas capitis” 9. 638. ‘Portarum,’ the gates of captured cities. ‘Claustra portarum’ = “portae.

[186] Ereptaque rostra carinis. It is remarked that these naval spoils are an anachronism: though Hector (Il. 9. 241) threatens to cut off the ἄκρα κόρυμβα of the Greek ships. Heyne thinks they are taken from pirate ships destroyed on the coast. The house of Pompey was decorated with the beaks of ships captured in his war against the pirates, Cic. Phil. 2. 28. “Tribulaque traheaeque” G. 1. 164, where, as here, the double letter helps the ictus in lengthening the syllable. See Excursus on Book 12.

[187, 188] Heyne is probably right in taking ‘succinctus trabea et lituo’ as a zeugma, though it is a strong one. Forb. considers ‘Quirinali lituo’ as an abl. of quality, or an attributive abl. Virg. may have intended the latter construction to help out the former. Romulus was an augur, and founded the city by help of the art. Hence the lituus (augur's staff or crook) is called ‘Quirinalis.’ Ov. F. 6. 375, “lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus.” But the epithet comes in rather strangely here. Gossrau wishes to take ‘Quirinali’ of Mars, comp. Dion. H. 2. 48, supposing Virg. to refer to some unknown story which associated the ‘lituus’ with Mars. He remarks that the pie into which Picus was turned is known as “picus Martius” (Pliny 10. 18, Ov. F. 3. 37), and that Picus is represented as a Salian priest with the ‘ancile.’ The ‘trabea,’ a toga with horizontal stripes of purple, was the garment both of the kings and of augurs, though it seems to have been purple and white for the kings, purple and saffron for augurs. The epithet ‘parva’ probably refers to the scanty size of the primitive, compared with the more luxurious, toga. For the ancilia, see Dict. A.

[189] Equum domitor is the Homeric ἱππόδαμος. Picus is called “utilium bello studiosus equorum” Ov. M. 14. 321, in the story of Circe's love for him, and ib. 343 he is represented as on horseback. Circe appears from Ov. l. c. to have been only in love with Picus, and to have turned him into a bird because he preferred the nymph Canens. But possibly Virg.'s view of the legend may not have been exactly the same as Ovid's. Otherwise we may take ‘capta cupidine coniunx’ closely together, i. q. “capta cupidine coniugii” like “coniugis amoreE. 8. 18.

[190] In Od. 10. 234 foll. Circe first gives her victims a magic potion and then strikes them with her wand. They are restored by the external application of another drug, v. 392. With ‘versum venenis’ comp. Hor. Epod. 5. 87, “Venena magnum fas nefasque non valent convertere humanam vicem.” ‘Aurea,’ dissyllable, 1. 698. Nothing is said in Hom. of the material of Circe's rod. Virg. may have thought of Ἑρμῆς χρυσόρ᾽ῥαπις, who tells Odysseus about Circe Od. v. 277, and is mentioned by Circe herself v. 331. Serv. makes ‘aurea’ nominative.

[191] Avem, the picus Martius (see on vv. 187, 8), an important bird in augury. ‘Sparsitque coloribus alas’ i. q. “dedit ei alas sparsas coloribus.” See Ov. M. 14. 393 foll., and comp. E. 2. 41, “sparsis pellibus albo.

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