previous next

[323] Juno follows her complaint, as in Book 1., by appealing for aid to one of the inferior powers; but her appeal to the powers of hell is of course the last resort and shows that destiny is about to be accomplished. ‘Ubi’ is constructed, like “postquam,” with the perf. in some cases where we should use the pluperf. See Madv. § 338 b. ‘Horrenda’ apparently = “torva,” as in 11. 507.

[324] Allecto for ‘Ălecto,’ like Homer's ἄλληκτον πολεμίζειν for ἄληκτον. So Orph. Arg. 966, Τισιφόνη τε καὶ Ἀλληκτὼ καὶ δῖα Μέγαιρα. The names of the Furies are not given in the poets before the Alexandrine period, Müller Diss. Eum. § 78. For ‘dearum,’ ‘sororum’ was the old reading and that of Heyne, and is supported by Med. second reading, Rom., and Gud. second reading. Wagn. introduced ‘dearum’ from fragm. Vat., Med. first reading, and Gud. first reading. ‘Sororum’ is less likely, on account of ‘sorores’ following so near in v. 327, and was probably introduced from v. 454. We have “dea dira” 12. 914. ‘Dira’ is sometimes used absolutely as a name for the Furies, 4. 473, 610. ‘Dirus’ appears to mean rather awful and appalling than horrible (see 8. 350), so that ‘dirae deae’ would nearly correspond to σεμναὶ θεαί. ‘Luctificus’ occurs in Cicero's translation from Aesch. Prom. Unbound, Tusc. 2. 10. Comp. “luctificabilis,” Pers. 1. 78.

[325] Infernisque tenebris epexegetical. ‘Tristia bellaE. 6. 7, Hor. A. P. 73.

[326] Irae denotes open violence, opposed to ‘insidiae,’ treachery. Comp. the use of “irasci” for attacking, 10. 712. ‘Crimina,’ grounds of quarrel, and so quarrels simply. Comp. “crimina belli” v. 339.

[327] Comp. Aesch. Eum. 73 (Apollo of the Erinnyes), Μισήματ᾽ ἀνδρῶν καὶ θεῶν Ὀλυμπίων. Virg. was also thinking of Il. 20. 65, τά τε στυγέουσι θεοί περ. Heyne comp. Il. 5. 890 (Zeus to Ares), Ἔχθιστος δέ μοι ἐσσὶ θεῶν, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν: Αἰεὶ γάρ τοι ἔρις τε φίλη, πόλεμοί τε μάχαι τε, from which vv. 325, 6 are evidently taken. Virg.'s sentiment is, of course, stronger than either. ‘Pater’ is probably to be understood strictly, as Orph. Hymn. 69 calls the Eumenides ἁγναὶ θυγατέρες μεγάλοιο Διὸς χθονίοιο Χερσεφόνης τ᾽, and ‘sorores’ is the natural correlative of ‘pater.’ Other accounts assigned a different parentage to the Furies Serv. e. g. speaking of them as daughters of Acheron and Night. See Lobeck, Aglaophamus pp. 546, 7. We must suppose them then in Virg.'s view to be the children of Pluto and Night, though to a Greek this would have involved a confusion between the older and younger gods. ‘Pluton,’ the Greek form: so Hor. 2 Od. 14. 7, “illacrimabilem Plutona.”

[328] Ora, aspects, nearly the same as “voltus;” ‘facies,’ forms. “Faciem mutatus et ora” 1. 658. ‘Tot sese vertit in ora’ seems to be an allegorical expression parallel to “tibi nomina mille, mille nocendi artes” v. 337. This multiformity is a substantive part of the Fury's horrors, and there is no need to fetch an epithet for ‘ora’ either from ‘saevae’ or from the general context. Comp. generally v. 447 below, “tot Erinys sibilat hydris, Tantaque se facies aperit.

[329] Atra belongs in sense to ‘colubris.’ Rom. and some other MSS. have ‘ora.

[330] Rom., Gud., and others have ‘dictis’ for ‘verbis.

[331] Sata Nocte 12. 846, Aesch. Eum. 69, Νυκτὸς παλαιαὶ παῖδες. ‘Proprium,’ especial, for herself alone (see the next line); opposed to the duties of Allecto in the moral world. Donatus explains ‘proprium’ peculiar to thyself: “ergo non laborabis, quia nihil peto alienum a te,” an interpretation also given by Serv. as an alternative. ‘Dare laborem’ on the analogy of “dare munus” &c., combined with “dare operam,” which is a phrase for taking trouble. Rom. has ‘laborum,’ which could not well stand. There is the same variety in E. 10. 1.

[332] For the sentiment comp. 1. 48, “Et quisquam numen Iunonis adorat,” &c. The construction of ‘ne’ after ‘dare operam’ is common. ‘Infracta cedatloco’ is well explained by Heyne as an amplification of “infringatur” or “inminuatur.” It is opposed of course to establishment on a solid foundation. We may contrast Lucr. 5.1164,Quae nunc in magnis florent sacra rebu' locisque.” “Loco cedit” 9. 220.

[333] ‘Neu connubiis,’ &c. would appeal to the malignity of the Fury. Comp. v. 329. ‘Ambire Latinum connubiis’ may be simply construed to conciliate or gain over Latinus by this marriage; though there may be also a reference to “ambire connubium,” like “ambire magistratum.” The plural ‘connubiis’ (their marriages) perhaps has something of bitterness in it, as also has ‘obsidere,’ to beset.

[335] Unanimes, the reading before Heins., is found in one of Ribbeck's cursives.

[336] Versare hardly = “vertere,” to overturn (v. 407), but rather i. q. “turbare.” So perhaps in the passage of Ennius quoted on v. 345. ‘Verbera’ and ‘faces’ are the whips and torches of the Furies (comp. vv. 451, 457), and here that which the whips and torches allegorize, whether the madness of crime or the fires and lashes of remorse. ‘Funereas’ is only the same as “atro” v. 456 and “atris” 4. 384. Another view makes ‘verbera’ quarrels and ‘funereas faces’ the funerals of those who are slain. But besides the fact that ‘verbera’ and ‘faces’ are the undoubted attributes of the Fury, ‘verbera’ is never used in Virg. in the general sense of blows, but only of a whip or lash.

[337] Nomina mille alludes to the variety of names, expressive of their various attributes, which were given to the gods, and from which they were called πολυώνυμοι. ‘Your power is felt under a thousand names;’ a reason why she would find it easy to gratify Juno.

[338] Concute: the metaphor is probably from the shaking of a cloak, or something of the same kind, to see if there is anything in it. See Macleane's note on Hor. 1 S. 3. 34, “denique te ipsum Concute,” which Heyne comp. There may be a further notion of arousing what is dormant. Gossrau quotes an imitation in Sil. 2. 539 foll., where Juno similarly excites Tisiphone against the Romans, “quidquid scelerum, poenarum quidquid et irae Pectore fecundo coquitur tibi, congere praeceps In Rutulos, totamque Erebo demitte Saguntum.

[339] ‘Disiice’ = “rumpe.” Sil. 2. 295 has “disiectaque pax est,” doubtless an imitation. ‘Pacem conponere’ occurs again 12. 822. ‘Sere crimina’ like “serit rumores” 12. 228.

[340] Juno says in effect, ‘Cause a sudden quarrel that may lead to bloodshed before Aeneas and Latinus can interpose.’ The wish, the demand, and the taking of the demand for granted are to be contemporaneous. “Arma volunt” 12. 242. ‘Poscat,’ apparently of Latinus and Aeneas, like “bellum poscunt” below v. 584. Some of Pierius' MSS. gave “Troiana iuventus” for ‘rapiatque iuventus.

[341-372] ‘Allecto goes to Latinus' palace, and plants a snake in the bosom of the queen, who inveighs against the Trojan alliance, reminds her husband of his promise to Turnus, and attempts to explain away the oracle.’

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: