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[37] This invocation marks a great epoch in the poem, and the commencement of a new class of characters and legends. The first words are from Apoll. R. 3. 1,Εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε νῦν, Ἐρατώ, παρά θ᾽ ἵστασο, καί μοι ἔνισπε”. But Erato, as the Muse of Love, is more appropriately invoked to rehearse the loves of Jason and Medea than the present theme, though Germ. thinks that the war in Italy may be said to have been kindled by the love of Lavinia's suitors, “tanquam flabello.” Virg., by the help of the Muse, will describe the posture of affairs (‘tempora rerum’) and the condition of Latium (‘quis Latio antiquo fuerit status’) when Aeneas arrived, and will trace the origin of the war between Aeneas and the Latins (‘primae revocabo exordia pugnae’). ‘Qui reges’ seems to be said generally, including Latinus and his ancestors, Turnus, and perhaps the other Italian princes. With ‘tempora rerum’ comp. the expression “reipublicae tempus,” which occurs more than once in Cic. (Off. 3. 24 &c.), though ‘tempora’ here means ‘times’ rather than ‘emergencies.’ Virg. has said ‘the times of affairs’ where we should rather talk of ‘the circumstances of the time.’ Serv. explains the words philosophically, “quia, secundum Lucretium, tempora nisi ex rebus colligantur, per se nulla sunt.” Peerlkamp connects ‘rerum’ with ‘status,’ very improbably.

[38] Advena adjectively, like “advena possessorE. 9. 2.

[39] “Adpulit oris” 1. 377., 3. 338, 715.

[40] Revocare of recalling the past, like “repeto” v. 123 below. ‘Primae exordia pugnae,’ a variety for “prima exordia pugnae.

[41] Mone, aid his memory. Comp. “monumentum,” and see v. 645, “Et meministis enim, divae, et memorare potestis; Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura.” The word is in keeping with ‘revocabo,’ and with the functions of the Muse as the daughter of Mnemosyne, E. 7. 19 note. ‘Horrida bella’ 6. 86.

[42] Reges. The list of them is given v. 647 foll. ‘Actos animis in funera’ seems to mean, spurred by their courage to encounter death, either the risk or the certainty of it. The general sense is parallel to 9. 460, “Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido Egit in adversos.” If we take it “in funera inferenda,” we may comp. 12. 528, “nunc totis in volnera viribus itur.

[43] ‘The Tyrrhene force’ is naturally enumerated among the subjects of this part of the poem, as the strife between Mezentius and his subjects had an important influence on the struggle. ‘Tyrrhenamque manum’ is not to be taken with ‘coactam,’ any more than ‘acies’ v. 42 with ‘actos.’ ‘Totam Hesperiam’ is of course not strictly true, but it probably refers to ‘Tyrrhenam manum’ and expresses that the war involved other states besides Latium. ‘Sub arma coactam,’ called out together to war. ‘Sub arma’ = “sub armis,” the regular phrase for ‘in arms’ (5. 440 &c.), with an additional notion of motion.

[44] ‘A grander series of events opens before me,’ grander, that is, than what he has hitherto related, if measured by the standard of importance in the Aeneid, for otherwise they could hardly be grander than the fall of Troy. But Virg. may mean to contrast generally the narrative of wars with the narrative of wanderings, the Iliad with the Odyssey. “Nascitur ordoE. 4. 5.

[45-106] ‘Latinus, king of Latium, had a daughter, Lavinia, whose hand was sought by Turnus, a Rutulian prince: but various portents indicated that she was destined to have a foreign husband, and at last her father received a distinct oracular intimation to that effect.’

[45] Moveo stir, and so commence. Comp. v. 641 “cantusque movete,” and Livy 23. 39, “movere ac moliri quicquam.” For Latinus, the Italian god Faunus and the nymph Marica, who was worshipped at Minturnae, see Dict. Myth. ‘Arva et urbes’ 3. 418.

[46] Iam senior 5. 179., 6. 304. ‘In pace’ with ‘regebat:’ “placida populos in pace regebat” 8. 325.

[47] In 8. 314 the Fauns and Nymphs are the indigenous race that inhabited Italy when Saturn came down to civilize it. ‘Laurens’ is properly the name of that territory and tribe whose capital was Laurentum: but Virg. uses it as a synonym of “Latinus.” Thus Turnus the Rutulian is called “Laurens” below v. 650. Latium in its latest and widest signification would include Minturnae on the Liris.

[48] Accipimus belongs to the historian rather than the poet: but the Muse, as we have seen (v. 41), inspires him to write history.

[49] The present ‘refert’ may be used either with reference to the actual existence of Picus as a god, or to his existence in history. For the possible meanings of the verb itself here see on 5. 564. Virg. seems here to treat the Italian divinities as a line of semi-divine earthly kings. For Saturn see 8. 319 foll. ‘Ultimus auctor’ like “ultima ex origine” Catull. 4. 15.

[50] Fato divom, by the decree of the gods, ‘fatum’ being used in its primary sense. Comp. 3. 716 note. The gods decreed that Latinus should have no son, in order that Aeneas might obtain his kingdom with the hand of Lavinia. Possibly there may be a reference to some specific oracle which formed part of the legend. ‘Filius prolesque virilis’ can hardly be considered as otherwise than a pleonasm, though ‘proles virilis’ marks the exact point more accurately than ‘filius.

[51] Nulla fuit, was no more, i. e. at the time when Aeneas landed. Comp. Virg. (?) Catalect. 14. 7, “sed tu nullus eris,” Cic. 3. Q. Fr. ep. 4, “sed vides nullam esse rempublicam, nullum senatum, nulla judicia, nullam in ullo nostrum dignitatem,” and the common comic phrase “nullus sum.” Serv. says that Virg. has taken the death of Latinus' male offspring from “history,” which relates that Amata had two sons, whom she killed, or, as others said, blinded, for siding with their father in promising Lavinia to Aeneas.

[52] Servabat domum, remained in the house, as in 6. 402, “Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen,” with a further notion of preserving the family. ‘Domum’ perhaps refers rather to her being the hope of his family, ‘tantas sedes’ to her being the heir of his estate. In the imitation by Stat. Theb. 1. 572, “Mira decore pio servabat nata penates,” we are meant also to think of worshipping the gods.

[53] If any distinction can be drawn between the two parts of this line, it is that the first relates to ripeness of person, the second to sufficiency of age.

[54] Petere of seeking in marriage 12. 42. ‘Magno,’ like “magna” v. 4, simply an ennobling epithet.

[55] Ante pleonastic after a superlative, as in 1. 347 after a comparative.

[56] Potens, probably with reference to his claims as a suitor, ‘with the prestige of a great line,’ or ‘with a high lineage to back his claim;’ though Silius (8. 383) has “avis pollens” merely for ‘high born.’ Comp. “parvo potentem” 6. 843; also “dives avis” 10. 201.

[57] Properabat in the sense and with the construction of “studebat.” Comp. σπουδάζειν, and the phrase “nihil mihi est longius,” “there is nothing for which I am more impatient,” alluded to in Forb.'s note. It must be remembered that the infinitive, whether active or passive, is really a noun constructed with the verb. ‘Amore,’ eagerness, as in 2. 10, “si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros.

[58] Variis portenta terroribus is equivalent to “varia et terrifica portenta,” though ‘terroribus’ might be abl. instr. with ‘obstant.

[59] Tecti medio should be understood, as Heyne says, with reference to the custom of planting trees in the “impluvium” of a house, 2. 512, Hor. 3 Od. 10. 5. ‘Penetralibus,’ the “impluvium” being in the centre of the house. Compared with 2. 514, it illustrates the connexion between the ‘penetralia’ and the “Penates.

[60] Sacra comam,frondibus intactis,” Heyne. “Multos servata per annos” 2. 715 note. ‘Metu,’ through fear, 3. 213., 4. 164.

[61] Primas cum conderet arces is equivalent to “cum primum arces (urbem) conderet.” Gossrau comp. 3. 17, “Moenia prima loco.” He finds the bay growing in the spot where he is going to build.

[62] Ipse seems simply to add gravity to the narrative; unless we like to say that the king assumes the priestly function.

[63] For the construction ‘Laurentis’ in apposition with ‘nomen’ see Madv. § 246 obs. 2, who quotes Livy 1. 1, “filium cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen.” “Mihi ponere nomen” Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 93, the Greek ὄνομα θέσθαι. With ‘quam’ followed by ‘ab ea’ Wagn. comp. Cic. Orator 3, “species pulchritudinis . . quam intuens in eaque defixus.

[65] Comp. G. 4. 59 (of bees), “Nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen.

[66] Apicem answers to ‘summa arce’ v. 70. ‘Per mutua’ is obviously equivalent to “mutuo” or “vicissim.” But it is not easy to fix the exact sense of the preposition. Perhaps we may compare such usages as “per ludum,” “per speciem,” &c.—‘in the way of reciprocity.’ The expression seems to be a variation of ‘mutua’ used adverbially by Lucr. e. g. 5. 1100,Mutua dum inter se rami stirpesque teruntur”.

[67] Comp. generally G. 4. 61, 557. ‘Subitum’ seems to denote the unexpectedness of the appearance, as “subitum monstrum” is frequently used. Heyne remarks that this occurrence was reckoned an evil omen, Pliny 11. 17 (18).

[68] Continuo as in v. 120 below. The prophet sees the meaning of the portent at once. ‘Cernimus,’ I behold, as a seer. Comp. 6. 87 (the Sibyl), “Bella, horrida bella, Et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno.

[69] Easdem, the same as the bees, i. e. the ‘arx.’ Rom. has ‘agmine:’ see on 3. 614.

[70] Partibus ex isdem, i. e. apparently from the quarter of the sea, though we have not been told explicitly whence the bees came. ‘Summa dominarier arce’ implies that the palace of Latinus was in the ‘arx:’ and the expression of course denotes complete dominion over the city.

[71] Adolet: see note on E. 8. 65. ‘Castis’ refers to the rite, as performed meetly and in order. Comp. 3. 409, “Hac casti maneant in religione nepotes.” The altar was that in the centre of the house. Comp. v. 77 and 2. 512.

[72] Et is the reading of all Ribbeck's uncials but Rom., which is apparently illegible, and it is now adopted by Wagn. for ‘ut.’ Lavinia has been mentioned 6. 764.

[73] Nefas: comp. 8. 688, “sequiturque, nefas, Aegyptia coniunx.” It seems to express the first feeling of the spectators, who regarded the event with horror and alarm, like Aeneas and his family in the similar case of Ascanius 2. 680 foll. ‘Conprendere crinibus ignem:’ the more ordinary expression would be “ignis crinem conprendit,” as in G. 2. 305. ‘Visa,’ was seen, not seemed. It was a “visum” or portent.

[74] Ornatum to be taken after ‘cremari,’ like ‘coronam’ after ‘accensa.’ “Flamma crepitante crematur” occurs Lucr. 6.155.

[75] Wagn. considers the repetition of ‘accensa’ as equivalent to a second ‘que’ (“accensa comasque coronamque”), and refers the line to the class of cases noticed on E. 4. 6, where see note: ‘accensa’ would then be coupled as a participle with ‘visa est cremari.’ This seems the best way of taking the passage. The common method is to take ‘accensa’ as “accensa esse visa est,” which is rather clumsy, and involves moreover a tautology, inasmuch as ‘omnem ornatum’ includes ‘comas’ and ‘coronam.’ Jahn proposes to strike out the semicolon after ‘gemmis’ and arrange the words: ‘et, accensa comas, accensa coronam, tum (i. e. “postquam accensa est,comp. 5. 719) visa est involvi fumida lumine fulvo.’ But it is more after the manner of Virg. to begin a new clause with ‘tum,’ as the last point in a description: see 11. 724, G. 2. 296. Ribbeck considers v. 74 to have been Virg.'s first draught, which he afterwards amplified, intending to retrench the superfluity. It is singular that in descriptions like these (especially in similes) Virg. is apt to leave the reader in doubt about the exact construction intended. ‘Regalis’ probably refers to the tiring and general appearance of the hair, which was worthy of a queen. ‘Insignem gemmis’ proves, as Heyne remarks, that the ‘corona’ is the royal, not the sacrificial crown.

[76] Tum, &c. till at last she became wrapped in dusky and smoking flame. ‘Fumida’ belongs in sense to ‘lumine,’ the words being nearly equivalent to “lumine fulvo et fumoso.” ‘Fulvus’ is twice applied to the colour of the eagle, 11. 751., 12. 247. Serv. explains the smoke grotesquely, as causing and therefore symbolizing tears.

[78] ‘Id vero’ implies that this portent following and surpassing the other brought their fear to its height. Comp. the use of “tum vero” 2. 228., 4. 450., 5. 659, 720. ‘Ferri,’ was accounted or rumoured. Comp. 2. 229, “scelus expendisse merentem Laocoonta ferunt,” Hor. 2 Od. 19. 27.

[79] Fama fatisque seems equivalent to “claris fatis.” Comp. 8. 731, “famamque et fata nepotum.” The fire round the princess herself portends her own bright fortunes, that which spreads from her over the palace portends the general conflagration of war over the land of which she was to be the cause.

[80] Wagn. Q. V. 13. 2 d. remarks on the metrical effect of the initial spondee, ‘ipsam,’ followed by a pause. It is difficult to say whether the subject of ‘portendere’ is ‘Lavinia’ or some word to be supplied from ‘id ferri.

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