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[446] Oranti: comp. 10. 96, “Talibus orabat Iuno.” This use of the word (nearly i. q. “loqui”) appears to be an archaism. See Plaut. Most. 3. 1. 152. The etymology is doubtless from “os,” as Freund remarks. As usual, some MSS. have ‘subito.’ Heins. introduced ‘subitos’ from a correction in Mentel. pr., but this would not be in Virg.'s manner. “Tremor occupat artus” 11. 424.

[447] For the orthography ‘Erinys’ see 2. 337 note. ‘Deriguere’ 3. 260, 308. ‘His eyeballs are stiffened in his head.’ Comp. above v. 328.

[448] Allecto expands again into the gigantic stature of a Fury. Her size is dwelt on here, as in v. 329 her multiformity. Rom. has ‘fumea,’ which is possible, ‘lumina’ being understood of her torch, as in 6. 593.

[449] Cunctantem should be taken closely with ‘quaerentem,’ and implies that Turnus was in the attitude to speak. Comp. 10. 717, “partis cunctatur (aper) in omnis,” and the use of μέλλησις for intention as well as delay. This agrees with ‘reppulit.’ The substance of the line has occurred 4. 390.

[450] She raises two of the serpents on her head, as it were horns. Ribbeck supposes that she turns them into a scourge, comp. Ov. M. 4. 495. There however the Fury is said expressly to pull off two serpents from her head: and we might perhaps argue from the lines in Ov. immediately preceding that ‘verbera insonuit’ need only refer to the rapid motion of the snakes on Allecto's head.

[451] Verbera, i. e. “verbera flagelli,” is a sort of cognate acc. to ‘insonuit.’ Comp. 5. 579, “insonuitque flagello.” “Haec addidit ore” 2. 593.

[454] Haec, the form and attributes of the Fury. An old poet in Cic. Tusc. 1. 16 has “Adsum atque advenio Acherunte” (inc. inc. fr. 78 Ribbeck). ‘Dirarum:’ see on v. 324.

[456] Iuveni coniecit for “in iuvenem” as in v. 346. The torch is of course as appropriate in the case of Turnus as the serpent in that of Amata.

[457] For ‘atro lumine’ comp. 4. 384 note, and for ‘lumine fumantis’ comp. v. 76. The torch, being preternatural, penetrates the breast without wounding, like the serpent. See on v. 349. In the imitation by Stat. Theb. 2. 94 foll., the spirit of Laius appears to Eteocles in the form of Tiresias, and ends by taking his true shape, exposing the death-wound in his throat, and sprinkling the sleeper with the blood, which however in the next line is called “vanus cruor.

[458] Ossa is harsh, but it expresses the penetrating nature of the sweat, so that we need not conj. ‘ora’ with Heyne and Peerlkamp. For the same incident comp. 3. 175. ‘Rupit,’ Rom., which was the reading before Heins. Med. has ‘perfudit,’ which Wagn. restored. A case might be made out for either or for both; but as fragm. Vat. and Ribbeck's cursives seem to agree in the two presents, it is best to follow them.

[459] Proruptus 1. 246.

[460] Arma is a cogn. acc. with ‘fremit.’ “Fremit arma iuventus” 11. 453. “Arma requirunt” Enn. A. 6. fr. 10. Turnus looks for the sword at his bedhead, and for the rest of his arms in the house. Comp. 6. 523, “arma omnia tectis Emovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem.

[461] Insania belli seems to stand for “insana cupido belli” (comp. E. 10. 44), on the analogy of Ἀρειμανής and similar words in Greek. Comp. “belli rabies” 8. 327. ‘Insanire in aliquam’ is found for to be madly in love with a person.

[462] Super, to crown all (“insignem aliquam accessionem denotat,” Wagn.). Turnus' natural sentiment seems to be distinguished, not very happily, from his preternatural fury for war. For a more successful picture of a mixture of feelings comp. 12. 666 foll. The following simile is a Virgilian amplification of three very homely lines in which Hom., Il. 21. 362 foll., describes the boiling of the Xanthus when attacked by Hephaestus. There is an effort throughout to raise the subject by dignified language—‘Magno sonore’— ‘virgea flamma’—‘aeni’—‘latices’— ‘aquai’—‘amnis.’ Some touches also are taken from Lucr. 3.294 foll., where the effect of anger is spoken of in metaphors borrowed from water and fire.

[463] Costis aeni, γάστρην τρίποδος Od. 8. 437. ‘Virgea flamma,’ for “flammantes virgae,” like “stuppea flamma” 8. 694, for “flammans stuppa.” Comp. Sophocles' πευκάενθ᾽ Ἥφαιστον Ant. 123. Hence ‘suggeritur.’ “Undam aeniG. 1. 296.

[464] “Exsultant vada” 3. 557. The MSS. are divided between ‘aquai’ (Med., Gud. originally?) and ‘aquae vis’ (fragm. Vat., Rom., Gud. corrected). Serv. apparently says that Virg. wrote ‘aquae vis,’ and Tucca and Varius introduced the diaeresis: a gloss in the MS. known as the primus Moreti represents Tucca as having introduced ‘aquae vis.’ Both are evidently old readings, and we must decide on internal grounds. ‘Aquae vis’ would involve the trajection of ‘atque,’ which is not in Virg.'s manner (see on E. 6. 38), so that Heins. and later editors seem right in reading ‘aquai,’ and supposing that it was changed to avoid the archaism and perhaps the separation of ‘aquai—amnis.’ The supposed third reading, ‘aquae amnis,’ seems to rest on a corruption in the text of Serv. For the position of ‘fumidus’ comp. that of “spumeus” 2. 419., 11. 626. ‘Fumidus’ in fact goes closely with ‘furit.

[465] Fumus of steam G. 2. 217. ‘Aquai amnem’ like “aquae rivumE. 8. 87. ‘Amnis’ of river water 12. 417. So ‘fontes’ 2. 686.

[466] Vapor ater, dense steam. “Nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possuntLucr. 3.298. Trapp remarks on the effect produced by the number of short words, as if the line could not contain its component parts.

[467] Polluta pace seems to refer to the breach of the peace by Turnus, not, as some have thought, to the breach of covenant charged by Turnus on Latinus. Turnus in fact invades Latium with an army, intending to make war on Latins and Trojans both (v. 470), though, as it happens, he finds the Latins willing to join him. ‘Polluta:’ see on 3. 61.

[468] Parari—‘tutari’—‘detrudere:’ for a similar change of construction see 3. 60, 61., 5. 773, E. 6. 85. ‘Primis iuvenum,’ 8. 105., 9. 785, the captains of his army.

[470] ‘Ambobus’ of two parties or bodies, like ἄμφω, ἀμφότεροι. See note on 1. 458, which passage however is not an exact parallel to this. ‘Satis ambobus’ i. q. “parem ambobus.” “Cui, si coniuret populus, vix totu' satis sit” Lucil. 1 fr. 10, Gerlach. Comp. also Soph. Aj. 1123,κἂν ψιλὸς ἀρκέσαιμι σοί γ᾽ ὡπλισμένῳ”.

[471] “Divosque in vota vocasset” 5. 234 note. “Messapum in proelia . . . . Hortatur” 11. 520.

[473] Some are impressed by Turnus' personal beauty, others by his ancestry, others by his valour. “Euryalus forma insignis viridique iuventa” 5. 295, though there ‘viridi iuventa’ may be an attributive abl., not coupled with ‘forma.’ One of Ribbeck's cursives and some others have ‘iuventa.

[474] “Atavis edite regibus” Hor. 1 Od. 1. 1. ‘Claris factis,’ attributive abl.

[475-539] ‘As Ascanius is hunting, Allecto throws in his way a pet stag belonging to the family of Latinus' chief herdsman, which he kills. The herdsman's daughter rouses her father and the neighbours. A battle ensues: one of the herdsman's sons is killed, and also a wealthy land-owner.’

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