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[540] The commentators compare Il. 5. 84, Ὣς οἱ μὲν πονέοντο: but the parallel is not close. Virg. however no doubt studied the Homeric transitions. “Atque ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntur,” 9. 1. ‘Aequo Marte:’ comp. the Homeric ξυνὸς Ἐνυάλιος, Il. 18. 309, and ὁμοιΐου πολέμοιο 9. 440: “Mars communis” is a common phrase in Latin. Neither had as yet been routed, though we gather in the sequel that the advantage was with the Trojans. Comp. 10. 755, “Iam gravis aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors Funera,” and the following lines.

[541] Promissi facta potens for “compos facta,” or the simple “potita.” Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 13, “Victor propositi,” and “victrix” v. 544. So Ov. M. 4. 510 speaks of the Fury as “victrix iussique potens.

[542] Imbuit probably contains the two notions of embruing (“imbuere manus, arma sanguine:” comp. vv. 547—554) and of setting on foot, using or doing for the first time, καινοῦν (comp. Prop. 5. 10. 5, “Imbuis exemplum primae tu Romule palmae,” and Catull. 62 (64). 11). “Primae pugnae,” the beginning of the battle; she leaves the field while it is still undecided, “aequo Marte” v. 540. But the words may mean that this was the first act in the war. ‘Committere funera pugnae’ is a variety for “committere pugnam,” ‘funera’ however being important, and indeed emphatic, like ‘sanguine’ in the line before, referring to the deaths of Almo and Galaesus. Markland rather ingeniously conj. ‘munera,’ a metaphor from gladiators, which might be supported by Hor. 1 Od. 28. 17, “Dant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti.

[543] Convexa is the reading of all the MSS. except Med. first reading ‘conversa,’ and the second Moretan, which has ‘connexa,’ as well as of Probus, Asper, Donatus, and Serv. Wagn. and Forb., supposing ‘convexa’ to have arisen from “caeli convexa” 4. 451, have adopted ‘conversa,’ which Wagn. interprets “convertens se a terris,” asense which, even if it can be given to ‘conversa’ alone, is very poor. On the other hand it is very difficult to construe ‘convexa,’ unless we may explain it by the analogy of “devexusG. 4. 293, “Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis,” and suppose it by a rather extraordinary combination of ideas to have reference to the flight of the Fury up the slope or cope of heaven, the shape of that over which she moves being expressed in the verb of motion. Anything like understanding ‘per’ twice, as some grammarians propose, or taking ‘caeli convexa’ in apposition to ‘auras,’ which is Heyne's view, seems quite out of the question. Canter ingeniously supposed ‘per auras’ to have been corrupted from ‘peragrans’ or ‘pererrans.’ Ribbeck thinks there is a lacuna.

[545] Perfecta bello, consummated in or by war.

[546] “Ac si dicat, Ita bella conmovi, ut ne tuo quidem inperio possint in pacem redire. Et hoc est, ‘adfatur voce superba.” Serv.

[547] “Quandoquidem Ausonios coniungifoedere Teucris” &c. 10. 105 resembles this line in form. Heyne altered the old pointing, which joined this line with the preceding. The connexion seems to be ‘now that I have done thus much, it will be easy for me to do more,’ an ostentatiously liberal offer to exceed what she had promised. ‘Ausonio sanguine’ seems to imply that the bloodshedding had been on one side.

[548] ‘His’ refers to the contents of the line before. “Tua si mihi certa voluntas” 4. 125 note.

[549] Rumoribus: comp. 9. 464., 12. 228, and the description of Fame in Book 4.

[550] “Incenditque animum famae venientis amore” 6. 889. “Insanus amor Martis” E. 10. 44.

[551] Auxilio 2. 216 note. ‘Spargam arma per agros,’ stronger than “sere crimina belli” v. 339 above, which Serv. comp.

[552] For this use of ‘abunde’ with a gen. see Hand Turs. 1. 71. ‘Ac’ was read before Heins., whether from any MS. is not known. ‘Terrorum et fraudis:’ there is enough of false panic without any fresh rumours (v. 549). Comp. v. 578., 4. 187. ‘Fraudis’ however may merely = “noxae.

[553] Stant i. q. “sunt,” with an additional notion of fixity. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 16. 17, “Iraealtis urbibus ultimae Stetere caussae cur perirent Funditus,” from which Virg. may have taken the phrase. “Certandum est comminus armis” 12. 890.

[554] Prima with ‘fors’ (comp. 2. 387) rather than with ‘quae.’ ‘Sanguis novus,’ the first blood, is said with reference to the sense of ‘imbuit,’ i. q. “auspicatus est,” mentioned on v. 542. The meaning is not that the chance weapons of the rustics (v. 508) have been stained with blood, but that the quarrel which was begun accidentally has proceeded to bloodshed.

[555] ‘Connubia’ was retained by Heyne: ‘coniugia’ however is found in all Ribbeck's MSS., the best authority for ‘connubia’ being the first Mentelian. ‘Connubia’ may have been introduced from 4. 316.

[556] Egregium ironical, as in 6. 523. “Rex ipse Latinus” above v. 432. Here ‘ipse’ seems merely to give dignity.

[557] See Wagn.'s remark quoted on 1. 680. Strictly speaking, the Fury was not wandering above, but in the upper air. The opposition is between the light of day, as shared by men and gods, and the darkness of the world below. Jupiter, as ‘summi regnator Olympi,’ prevents the Fury from trespassing on his domain. Comp. Aesch. Eum. 365 foll., and indeed the play generally. ‘Aetherias auras:’ see on 1. 546. ‘Errare licentius’ combines the notions of free movement (‘errare’ as in E. 1. 9) and wandering from the proper place.

[558] Pater ille: comp. 2. 779, and see on v. 110 above. “Regnator Olympi” 10. 437. The first Mentelian, a variant in Gud., and others, have ‘ipse;’ Gud. also gives ‘superi’ as a variant.

[559] “Cedere loco” is a phrase for giving way in battle, and perhaps the plural may be used here to avoid that special meaning, though it may be equally well referred to metrical convenience or poetical variety. The sense obviously is ‘Be gone from hence.’ Canon. has ‘loco,’ omitting ‘ego,’ unmetrically. ‘Laborum,’ the war: comp. v. 481. “Fortuna laborumG. 3. 452. Virg. probably imitates Il. 1. 522 (Zeus to Thetis), Ἀλλὰ σὺ μὲν νῦν αὖτις ἀπόστιχε, μή σε νοήσῃ Ἥρη: ἐμοὶ δέ κε ταῦτα μελήσεται, ὄφρα τελέσσω, as Cerda remarks. For the tmesis ‘super est’ comp. 2. 567, E. 6. 6.

[560] Regam = “dirigam” 9. 409 &c. ‘Dederat:’ in these cases Virg. uses the perfect and pluperfect tenses indifferently.

[561] Snakes in her wings are a new feature: the allusion cannot be to the snakes in her hair. Doubtless they supply the place of feathers, as feathers answer to hair. “Stridentibus alis” 1. 397, of the ordinary rushing sound of wings.

[562] Med. and Rom. have ‘super,’ which Ribbeck adopts, as in 6. 241, 750, 787.

[563] Some MSS. and the old editions have ‘in medio.’ Heins. ejected ‘in.’ Amsanctus is fixed by Cic. de Div. 1. 36, Pliny 2. 95, in the territory of the Hirpini, and therefore ‘Italiae in medio’ is said only with reference to the breadth, not to the length of Italy. I am indebted to Mr. Long for some extracts from a paper by Mr. Hamilton in the London Geographical Journal, vol. 2. p. 62, describing the place. It is a small pond, in the smallest dimension about twenty paces, and not more than thirty in the longest. “The water bubbles up with an explosion resembling distant thunder.” “On one side of the” pond “is a constant and rapid stream of the same blackish water rushing into it from under” a “barren rocky hill,” under which the pond is: “but the fall is not more than a few feet.” “A little above are apertures in the ground through which warm blasts of sulphuretted hydrogen gas are constantly issuing with more or less noise.” The name is derived from the old “am” = “circum” and “sanctus.

[565] Valles nom. sing., as in 11. 522, where see note. ‘Frondibus’ may go either with ‘urguet’ or with ‘atrum.

[566] Latus nemoris, a woody steep cliff: comp. Hor. 2 S. 6. 91, “Praerupti nemoris dorso,” and note on v. 82 above. ‘Medioque’ sc. ‘nemore.’ Freund seems wrong in explaining ‘fragosus’ here of sound, though probably we are meant to be reminded of that sense of “fragor.” Here it doubtless means full of breaks, which is its general sense. In Val. F. 2. 622., 4. 261 it may have the sense of sound, but it may equally well refer to the broken waves, if it is not to be taken actively, ship-wrecking. Some MSS. have ‘fragosis.

[567] Saxis et torto vertice, doubtless refers to the bubbling up of the water among the rocks.

[568] Horrendum et saevi is the reading of all Ribbeck's MSS. but one (Pal. and Vat. and Verona fragmm. are wanting), which omits ‘et.’ Serv. says that ancient copies read ‘specus horrendus,’ which doubtless shows that they had not the copula, though it has been suggested that the copyists may have thought that ‘us’ could be elided. ‘Et’ was omitted by Heins. and Heyne, who read ‘monstratur;’ but the authority seems insufficient, especially as the copies which omit ‘et’ do not agree in reading ‘monstratur.’ Rom. is the only one of Ribbeck's MSS. that has ‘monstratur,’ and it retains ‘et.’ ‘Specus’ is fem. in Ennius, Pacuvius, and Attius, masc. in ordinary Latin, neut. here and in Sil. 13. 425. ‘Specus’ is the pool, ‘spiracula’ the apertures. The latter name, and that of “Charoneae scrobes,” are said by Pliny 2. 93 to have been generally given to places of this kind. Comp. Lucr. 6.762 foll., where the supernatural explanation is protested against. For ‘saevi’ Wagn. rightly comp. v. 84, “saevam mephitim.” “Spiracula mundiLucr. 6.493.

[569] Monstrantur, 6. 440. ‘Rupto Acheronte,’ formed by the bursting up of Acheron: ‘rupto’ like “rupto turbine” 2. 416. Turn. comp. ἀπορ᾽ῥώξ Il. 2. 755, which however is rather the arm of a river. Ἀπόσπασμα, as used by Plato, Phaedo 61 (see the passage quoted on 6. 551), seems a better parallel.

[570] Pestiferas: Mr. Hamilton says the vapours are at times fatal. Med., Gud., and others have ‘condit,’ a natural error, mentioned as a various reading by Serv.

[571] Wakef. and Jahn make ‘numen’ acc. after ‘condita,’ which would be harsh. Rom. and others have ‘levavit,’ which would be easier, as ‘levabat’ is not sufficiently supported by 11. 827, “linquebat habenas,” where we are meant to dwell on the gradual relaxation of Camilla's grasp in death. Perhaps one may say that the description of Amsanctus has the same effect here, making us linger on the contemplation of the Fury's disappearance: or the point may be the gradual relief caused by her removal.

[572-600] ‘The Latins, backed by Turnus, clamour for war against the Trojans. Latinus resists long, but eventually yields under protest, abandoning the conduct of affairs to others.’

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