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[678] Praenestina urbs for “Praeneste” like “Agyllina urbs,” v. 652 above, for “Agylla.” Rom. has ‘deficit.

[679] The story, as told by Serv., is that there were two brothers known as “divi Indigetes” of the spot where Praeneste was built; that they had a sister, who, sitting near the fire, was struck by a spark, and conceived in consequence; that she dropped her child, when born, by the temple of Jupiter, and that it was there found close to the hearth by maidens going to a neighbouring spring for water. Mai's palimpsest Schol. gives this story in a briefer form on the authority of Cato's Origines, adding that the name Caeculus was derived from the smallness of his eyes, “quam rem,” observes Serv., “frequenter efficit fumus.” Serv. goes on to say that he was at first a brigand, but afterwards founded a city; that he exhibited games, to which the neighbouring people were invited, when he proclaimed himself as the son of Vulcan; and that after doubting his pretensions, they were convinced by the sudden appearance of fire all round them, upon which they joined his community. The story seems a variety of that of Cacus, with whose name the name ‘Caeculus’ is probably to be connected. ‘Pecora inter agrestia,’ which goes with ‘genitum,’ is not explained by any detail in the account; but it may mean little more than “in agris.” ‘Regem’ seems to be proleptic. ‘Volcano,’ abl. “Fauno et Nympha genitum Laurente Marica,” v. 47 above.

[680] Inventum, by the maidens mentioned in the preceding note. ‘Omnis aetas,’ as we say, all time. It is more commonly used in the sense of ‘every age,’ i. e. persons of every time of life: see Dictt.

[681] Late may either be used loosely to mean collected from far and wide, or may be closely connected with ‘comitatur,’ follows in a large and spreading multitude. Ribbeck reads ‘late legio’ from Med. and one of the inferior MSS., it is difficult to see why. ‘Legio’ used vaguely as in 8. 605 &c.

[682] Altum: the town originally stood on a steep hill, and the citadel was a well-known stronghold (Dict. G. s. v.). ‘Arva Gabinae Iunonis,’ the territory of Gabii, Gabii itself not having been built, as Serv. remarks. The worship of Juno under different names was very general throughout that part of Italy (Dict. M. ‘Juno’).

[683] Anio is the commoner form in the nom. ‘Anien’ (‘Anienis,’ ‘-i,’ ‘-em’) in the oblique cases (Dict. G. s. v.) ‘Roscida rivis:’ so Sil. 4. 226, “Quosque in praegelidis duratos Hernica rivis Mittebant saxa.

[684] “Herna” or “hernae,” according to Serv. and Festus, was the word for rocks in the Sabine or Marsian language, so that ‘Hernica saxa’ is an expresion like “novae Karthaginis” 1. 298, and others mentioned there. For the features of the country, “well characterized by Virg. in a single line,” see Dict. G. ‘Hernici.’ ‘Dives’ apparently from its fertility (Sil. 8. 392 foll., 12. 532 foll., quoted by Cerda), which would agree with ‘pascit.’ Bunbury (Dict. G. s. v.) explains the epithet by the importance of the city compared with its neighbours. Serv. has an odd notion that there is an allusion to Antony's having issued money with his name there after his union with Cleopatra. Heins. read ‘pascis’ from a few MSS. (none of Ribbeck's) and so Heyne. See on 2. 56.

[685] Amasenus 11. 547, said to be the only other place in ancient writers where it is mentioned, except a passage in Vibius Sequester. It rises above Privernum and flows through the Pontine marshes, and is still called “Amaseno” (Dict. G.). ‘Pater’ as a river: see on G. 4. 355.

[686] It matters little whether ‘sonant’ goes with ‘arma’ or not. Rom. has ‘currusque.’ “Plumbea glans,” of a leaden bullet, Lucr. 6.178, 306. For the use of bullets in slings comp. 9. 588.

[687] Liventis, a perpetual epithet, ‘livens’ being defined in Forc. as “plumbei coloris.” ‘Spargere’ of frequently flinging weapons 12. 51.

[688] The ‘galerus’ seems to have differed from the “galea” in being made of skin rather than metal, though skin was also used in the latter, as a probable etymology (γαλέη: comp. κυνέη) indicates. See Lersch Antiqq. § 32.

[689] Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘tegmina,’ Med. corrected ‘capitis.’ So v. 742 below, “Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere cortex.” Virg. doubtless intentionally consulted variety, which he has carried out by making a pl. there stand in apposition to a sing., as here a sing. is in apposition to a pl. ‘Nuda.’ Much difficulty has been made about this passage, the more ordinary custom being to have the left foot protected with a greave, the right remaining bare. Macrob. Sat. 5. 19 tells us that Euripides in his Meleager (fr. 534) represented the sons of Thestius, Meleager's uncles, as having the right foot shod, ὡς ἐλάφριζον γόνυ Ἔχοιεν ὃς δὴ πᾶσιν Αἰτωλοῖς νόμος, but that Aristotle in the 2nd book of his treatise Περὶ ποιητῶν stigmatized the notion as absurd, δεῖ γὰρ οἶμαι τὸν ἡγούμενον ἔχειν ἐλαφρόν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ τὸν ἐμμένοντα. Macrob. suggests no explanation, merely commending Virg. for his learning in transferring an Aetolian custom to the Hernici, who, according to Hyginus, were a Pelasgian colony. Serv.'s solution, adopted by Heyne, is that these Italians carried a shield (“scutum”) which would protect their left foot, which he supposes to be the one advanced in battle: but this is contrary to v. 686, unless we press the word ‘clipeus’ as indicating only one sort of shield. The simplest solution would seem to be this: the unshod foot would have the disadvantage of being unprotected, but it would have the advantage of being disencumbered. It is of this latter point that Virg. is thinking here, like Eur. and Aristot., though with the Romans generally (see Heyne, Excursus 8) the former seems to have been the prominent consideration. But Vegetius 1. 20 (cited by Lersch § 33) lays down the rule that in discharging missiles the left foot is to be advanced, in using the “pilum” and sword the right. In representing then these slingers and darters as having their left foot naked, Virg. is not open to Aristot.'s censure, the left in their case being ἡγούμενος. For 10. 587, which might be alleged to show that Virg. does not recognize the distinction of Vegetius, see note there. For the custom of leaving unshod the foot which was meant to tread firmly, comp. Thuc. 3. 22, where Arnold refers to Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, Canto 4, st. 18. In ‘vestigia nuda’ the feet and foot-prints are confused: comp. 5. 566 note.

[690] Instituere seems to mean plant or set down, so that the expression is not to be compared (with Heyne) with Lucr. 1.406,Cum semel institerunt vestigia certa viai.” In Lucr. 4.472, which was supposed to be an exact parallel, the MS. reading “in statuit,” seems right: see Lachm. and Munro. The perf. is here aoristic. Mr. Long understands ‘instituere’ “have the custom of,” and possibly Virg. may have intended to include both significations. ‘Crudus,’ made of raw hide, like “crudo caestu” 5. 69. ‘Pero:’ Dict. A. s. v.

[691-705] ‘Messapus leads a contingent from southern Etruria.’

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