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[705] Urgueri seems to be middle, press themselves, or each other, on. ‘Raucarum:’ Virg. is not thinking, as some have supposed, of swans, but of other birds, such as cranes. ‘Nubem,’ of a troop of birds, as G. 4. 60 of a swarm of bees.

[706-722] ‘Clausus leads an army from the Sabine territory.’

[706] Heyne wished to take ‘Sabinorum’ with ‘agmen:’ but it evidently goes with ‘prisco de sanguine,’ which forms a description of Clausus.

[707] The name Clausus seems to be taken from the later legend of Attus or Atta Clausus, who shortly after the establishment of the commonwealth migrated to Rome from Regillum with a large number of followers, who were formed into the Claudian tribe, while he himself was known as App. Claudius Sabinus Regillensis (Dict. B. ‘Claudius’). “Agmen agens” below v. 804. ‘Agminis instar:’ his strength and bravery made him worth an army—as we say, a host in himself.

[709] “Vocamus in partem” 3. 223. The union with the Sabines under Tatius must be meant, so that Virg. has antedated the introduction of the Claudii by a couple of centuries.

[710] Amiternum (Dict. G. s. v.), the birthplace of Sallust, was assigned by some to the Sabines, by some to the Vestini. As Heyne remarks, Virg., writing about legendary times, gives a somewhat wider range to the Sabine territory than belonged to it in the historical period. ‘Quirites,’ the people of Cures. “Sabinorum Amiternini, Curenses . . . Nursini, Nomentani . . . Trebulani qui cognominantur Mutusci.” Pliny 3. 12 (17).

[711] Eretum, though occasionally mentioned in history, never seems to have been a place of importance (Dict. G.). ‘Mutuscae’ seems to be gen. sing. The full name was Trebula Mutusca. There are still olives in the neighbourhood (Dict. G.).

[712] Nomentum, already mentioned 6. 773, where it is among the places afterwards to be built and named by Aeneas' posterity. It is disputed whether it was a Latin or Sabine town. The passage in Book 6 favours the former view, making it a colony from Alba. ‘Rosea:’ the country in the valley of the river Velinus, about Reate, was called “Rosei” (or “Roseae”) “Campi” (according to Serv. “ager Rosulanus”): see Dict. G. ‘Reate.’ For a story about its fertility see on G. 2. 201, 202. Pal. and Gud. have ‘Roscia,’ and some inferior copies ‘roscida:’ comp. Pliny 3. 12 (17), (Sabini) “Velinos accolunt lacus, roscidis collibus.

[713] Tetrica or Tetricus seems to have been part of the central range of the Apennines, separating the Sabine territory from Picenum. Severus, which no other author mentions, doubtless belongs to the same range (Dict. G.). Cerda notices that both names are used as adjectives and applied as such to describe the traits belonging to the Sabine character. Pal. and Gud. have ‘amnemque severum’ (the latter with a variant ‘montem’) from a recollection of 6. 374. ‘Horrentis’ probably gen. sing.

[714] Casperia and Himella are scarcely named except by Virg. and Silius. Foruli is somewhat better known, being mentioned by Livy and Strabo (Dict. G. s. vv.).

[715] Fabaris is identified by Serv. with Farfarus, mentioned by Plautus and Ovid, and still known as Farfa (Dict. G.).

[716] Nursia, called ‘frigida’ from its situation in the midst of mountains, is mentioned several times both in early and later history. Shortly before the time of the composition of the Aeneid its inhabitants were punished by Octavianus for their conduct during the Perusian war (Dict. G.). There is a difficulty about ‘Hortinae classes,’ as the town of Horta stood on the Etruscan side of the Tiber, and the adj. would naturally be “Hortanus” (Dict. G. ‘Horta’). Possibly there may be some confusion with the Fortineii, who are enumerated by Dionys. 5. 61 among the cities of the Latin league, and are identified by some with the Hortenses, perhaps the people of Ortona, mentioned in Pliny's list (3. 5 &c.), of the extinct communities of Latium. Comp. “foedus,” “hoedus,” “fordus,” “hordus” &c. This would agree with the mention of the ‘populi Latini’ here, and would not be inconsistent with the occurrence of Allia in the next line. ‘Populi Latini’ seems used very loosely, as we can hardly suppose that Virg. means to introduce at one sweep all the communities which partook in the sacrifices at the Alban mount, which is apparently Serv.'s explanation. Heyne. Excursus 8, following Cluver, understands the expression either of Latin cities which had fallen under the dominion of the Sabines or Latin colonies established in the Sabine territory. It is possible, however, as has been suggested to me by Mr. Nettleship, that Virg. may be referring to some community of which the memory has perished, as certain Latinienses follow the Hortenses in Pliny's list just referred to: if so, ‘Latini’ may perhaps be the gen. of ‘Latinium.’ “Latiniensia vina,” from another region, are mentioned Pliny 14. 6 (8); so the existence of such a name is not impossible. ‘Classes’ in its ancient sense, according to which the word was applied to military as well as naval forces: see Dictt.

[717] Allia is well known for the defeat of the Romans by the Gauls under Brennus, on July 16, hence called “dies Alliensis,” and kept as an unlucky day.

[718] “Quam multa” in a comParison G. 4. 473. ‘Libyco marmore’ perhaps like “Libyci aequorisG. 2. 105, where see note. The comParison is like the second of the two in G. 2. l. c. Perhaps Virg. is thinking here of Il. 2. 143 foll. where the movement in the assembly is compared to the motion first of the sea, then of a cornfield, under the breath of a wind.

[719] From Apoll. R. 1. 1201,εὖτε μάλιστα Χειμερίη ὀλοοῖο δύσις πέλει Ὠρίωνος”. For the storms about the setting of Orion comp. Hor. 1 Od. 28. 21., 3. 27. 17.

[720] Strictly speaking the construction is “aut quam multae aristae cum sole novo densae torrentur,” but as ‘densae’ really does duty for “multae,” we may say that Virg. expresses himself as if the comParison in v. 718 had been introduced by “ac veluti,” “quales,” or some similar form. Heyne, after Faber and others, at one time conj. ‘quam’ for ‘cum,’ and so an edition of 1495: and one MS. (not one of Ribbeck's number) has ‘quot.’ ‘Sole novo’ would naturally mean either the early morning (G. 1. 288) or the early warm weather (G. 2. 332): but it is difficult to see why either of these should be represented as baking the ears of corn, as we should rather have expected the “maturi soles” (G. 1. 66) of summer. Perhaps it may mean ‘an Eastern sun,’ like “sole recenti” Pers. 5. 54, the countries being spoken of relatively to Italy.

[721] For the fertility of Lydia comp. 10. 141. Heyne doubts that of Lycia: but see Dict. G. ‘Lycia’ § 2.

[722] Scuta is the only hint given us of the arms of Clausus' forces. The rest of the line is from Il. 2. 784, τῶν ὑπὸ ποσσὶ μέγα στεναχίζετο γαῖα. For ‘conterrita’ the Medicean of Pierius and another of his MSS., with some inferior copies, read ‘tremit excita,’ which is found in 12. 445, where these words recur. In itself it might be an improvement, but the authority is insufficient and the cause of the variation clear. The construction is doubtless ‘scuta sonant tellusque (sonat) pulsu pedum conterrita,’ as against Wagn. (large ed.) and others who make ‘conterrita’ a finite verb. Med. has ‘cursu’ for ‘pulsu.

[723-732] ‘Halaesus brings troops from the Auruncan and Oscan territories.’

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