Vertitur seems to be used on the analogy of “versatur,” στρέφεται, being preferred by Virg. as less common and as therefore bringing out the original metaphor more sharply. “Celeriter se movet et vegeto animo et corpore” Gossrau. Comp. the use of “avertitur” G. 3. 499, where “aversatur” would have been more usual. “Arma tenens” 8. 299. ‘Toto vertice supra est’ seems to be from the description of Ajax Il. 3. 227, ἔξοχος Ἀργείων κεφαλήν τε καὶ εὐρέας ὤμους.
 For the triple plume Lersch § 32 comp. Polyb. 6. 23. 12, of the Roman “hastati,” ἐπὶ δὲ πᾶσι τούτοις προσεπικοσμοῦνται πτερίνῳ στεφάνῳ καὶ πτεροῖς φοινικίοις ἢ μέλασιν ὀρθοῖς τρισίν, ὡς πηχυαίοις τὸ μέγεθος, ὧν προστεθέντων κατὰ κορυφὴν ἅμα τοῖς ἄλλοις ὅπλοις ὁ μὲν ἀνὴρ φαίνεται διπλάσιος ἑαυτοῦ κατὰ τὸ μέγεθος, ἡ δ᾽ ὄψις καλὴ καὶ καταπληκτικὴ τοῖς ἐναντίοις. ‘Crinita’ is used almost like a participle with ‘iuba:’ comp. 12. 413, “foliis et flore comantem.” “Gorgonis os pulcherrimum, crinitum anguibus” Cic. 2 Verr. 4. 56. Stat. actually uses a verb “crinio:” see quotation on v. 751.
 Sustinet, doubtless on the top of the helmet, ‘galea alta.’ “In the colossal statue of Athene in the Parthenon at Athens she bore a sphinx on the top of her helmet and a griffin on each side. Paus. 1. 24. 5” (Dict. A. ‘Galea’). ‘Aetnaeos,’ like those of Aetna. “Horriferos eructans faucibus aestus” Lucr. 3.1012. Virg. thought of Il. 6. 182, δεινὸν ἀποπνείουσα πυρὸς μένος αἰθομένοιο.
 Illa is an anacoluthon, belonging really to ‘Chimaeram’ (comp. 10. 497 foll.): or we may say that Virg. for variety's sake chooses to identify the helmet and the cognizance. A third way would be with Wagn. to regard the part. as standing for the finite verb, as G. 2. 133, “folia haud ullis labentia ventis:” but this would destroy the idiomatic use of “ille” in apposition, so common in Virg. (1. 3., 5. 457 &c.). ‘Tam magis—quam magis’ is noted by Quint. 9. 3 as an archaism. Gossrau comp. Plaut. Poen. 1. 2. 135, “Quam magis aspecto, tam magis est nimbata, et nugae merae.” ‘Tristibus flammis’ like “laevo contristat lumine caelum” (of Sirius) 10. 275. ‘Efferus’ appears to be a poetical word; it occurs Lucr. 2.604, though Forc. quotes no instance earlier than Virg., who uses the word pretty frequently: Cic. however has “efferari.”
 Crudescunt 11. 833, G. 3. 504 note. Virg. has turned the imagery of such passages as Il. 5. 4., 18. 225 foll. into an artistic representation. He can hardly mean more here than that the figure of Chimaera appears more dreadful the more Turnus himself inspires terror. Comp. 9. 731 foll., where the ‘pathetic fallacy,’ as Mr. Ruskin would call it, is the same.
 Sublatis cornibus gives the picture: she was represented as completely transformed, ‘iam saetis obsita, iam bos.’ Io was chosen on account of Turnus' connexion with Argos, as if he was the representative of Greece in Italy.
 Auro insignibat: the figure seems to have been an “emblema,” gold attached to some other metal. “Clipei insigne decorum” 2. 392. ‘Iam’ &c. Virg. has translated Mosch. 2. 44, as Cerda remarks, Ἐν μὲν ἔην χρυσοῖο τετυγμένη Ἰναχὶς Ἰὼ Εἰσέτι πόρτις ἐοῦσα, φυὴν δ᾽ οὐκ εἶχε γυναίην. ‘Iam,’ already: the transformation was complete. Comp. 12. 179, “Saturnia coniunx, Iam melior, iam, diva, precor,” changed at last to kindness.
 Argumentum in the sense of the subject of a composition is as old as Plautus, “Post argumentum huius eloquar tragoediae,” Amph. Prol. 51. It is frequently used as here in relation to works of art, e. g. “Ex ebore diligentissime perfecta erant argumenta in valvis,” Cic. 2 Verr. 2. 4. 56, where a Gorgon's head (see note on v. 785 above) is instanced, as having been removed from the doors by Verres. It seems in fact to have been a technical term for historical and legendary subjects in art. Prop. 4. 9. 13, speaking of the different provinces of different artists, says, “Argumenta magis sunt Mentoris addita formae, At Myos exiguum flectit acanthus iter” (this and the last quoted passage from Cerda's note), where Paley understands the word of groups as opposed to single figures.
 The representation of Inachus as a river-god has nothing to do with any event in the story, but is simply introduced that he may be identified in the work of art. See notes on 8. 652, 653, 654. ‘Caelata:’ Inachus is part of the “emblema.” Representations of river-gods reclining with water streaming out of pitchers at their sides are common enough.
 A translation of Il. 4. 274, νέφος εἵπετο πεζῶν, where the simile which follows shows that the cloud meant is a storm-cloud, ‘nimbus.’ ‘Clipeatus’ is used in prose and verse both: see Dictt. Pacuv. Herm. fr. 21 has the verb “clipeo.”
 Enn. A. 8. fr. 13 has “densantur campis horrentia tela virorum.” For ‘densentur’ or ‘densantur’ see on G. 1. 248. ‘Argivaque pubes,’ probably the inhabitants of Ardea, “Acrisonei coloni,” v. 410.
 ‘Auruncae manus,’ Auruncans on the nearer side of the Liris, as distinguished from those on the further side, above v. 727. ‘Rutuli’ followed by ‘Rutulos’ v. 798 is a little awkward, so that Heyne wished to read ‘Siculi’ here, from a quotation (erroneous, as he admits) by Serv. on 1. 2. ‘Veteresque Sicani:’ “gentes venere Sicanae” 8. 328 note: see also 11. 317 foll. ‘Veteres’ points to their early settlement in Italy, 8. l. c.
 The Sacrani, like the Sicani, are a mythical people (Dict. G. s. v.). One etymological fancy made them a colony of Corybantes, another emigrants in consequence of a “ver sacrum.” ‘Labici’ for “Labicani,” the name of the place being Labicum (Lavicum) or Labici (Dict. G.). It was one of the cities of the Latin league, and seems to have fallen into decay after the Punic wars. One of the roads out of Rome was called Via Labicana. “Pictis armis” of the Arcadians 8. 588., 12. 281, of the Amazons 11. 660. For the thing see on 8. l. c.
 Wagn. thinks this and the five following lines specify not new tribes, but the localities inhabited by those already mentioned. This is possible: but Virg. elsewhere in this catalogue mixes up the two modes of designation (e. g. vv. 710 foll.), so that it would hardly be safe to assume that he intends any distinction here. For the words about the Tiber comp. v. 29 above, 8. 92 foll.: for Numicus vv. 150, 242 above.
 ‘Circaeum iugum’ above v. 10. The ‘iugum’ is the Circeian promontory (Dict. G. ‘Mons Circeius’). The temple of Jupiter at Anxur is mentioned by Livy: see Dict. G. ‘Tarracina.’ Anxur or Axur seems to have been a local god identified with Jupiter, as, according to Serv., Feronia was with Juno, and hence Virg. combines the names, making ‘Anxurus’ a title of Jupiter. Serv. has an etymological figment explaining the word as ἄνευ ξυρᾶς, the god being represented on coins as a youth. See Preller, Römische Mythologie, p. 238. Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘Anxuris.’ The people are called Anxurates by Livy. The construction is irregular (see on v. 727), the meaning being “qui habitant arva . . . qui habitant qua iacet.”
 “Geticis qui praesidet arvis” 3. 35. Here the reference seems to be to the position of the temple on a height. For the different views taken of the goddess Feronia see Dict. M. s. v. She appears again 8. 564 as the mother of a king Erulus. More than one grove was called by her name: that meant here was three miles from Tarracina (Hor. 1 S. 5. 24 foll.), on the border of the Pontine marshes (Dict. G. s. v.).
Saturae palus is only known
from this place and Sil. 8. 380, who imitates
and tries to improve on Virg.:
“Qua Saturae nebulosa palus restagnat,
Liventis caeno per squalida turbidus arva
Cogit aquas Ufens, atque inficit aequora limo.
[803-817] ‘Camilla, the swift-footed huntress, leads a contingent of Volscian cavalry.’