Latinus having renounced the conduct of the war and shut himself up (7. 600), Turnus takes the lead. ‘Belli signum,’ a flag, such as was displayed on the Janiculum at the “comitia centuriata,” and over the general's tent before battle (Dion Cass. 37. 28). Heyne inclines to explain ‘signum’ by ‘cornua,’ comp. 7. 513: but Wagn. rightly remarks that ‘extulit’ would not agree with this.
 Concussit, roused them; but probably there is also an allusion to the phrase “concutere habenas equis” 5. 147., 6. 101. ‘Inpulit arma’ clashed his arms by way of exciting the ardour of his followers. Comp. 12. 332, “Sanguineus Mavors clipeo increpat, atque furentis Bella movens inmittit equos;” Sil. 12. 683 (comp. by Gossrau), “Rursus in arma vocat trepidos, clipeoque tremendum Increpat, atque armis imitatur murmura caeli” (of Hannibal). Comp. also Val. F. 6. 6, referred to by Cerda. Whether this was an official act performed by the general does not appear. Serv. thinks there is an allusion to a custom at Rome, according to which the general (“qui belli susceperat curam”) entered the temple of Mars and shook first the ancilia and then the spear of the god, saying “Mars vigila.”
 “Conversi animi” 2. 73. It is a question whether ‘simul’ acts as a connecting particle between the two clauses (Heyne), or strengthens ‘omne’ and ‘coniurat’ (Wagn.): but the latter seems better. ‘Tumultu’ here expresses the rising of Latium, the abl. being a modal one. ‘Coniurat’ denotes a general rising. “De S. C. certior factus ut omnes iuniores Italiae coniurarent” Caes. B. G. 7. 1.
 Vastant cultoribus agros: “abducendo cultores vastos et desertos efficiunt” Serv., rightly, as is shown by parallel instances quoted in Forc., Hirt. (?) B. G. 8. 24, “finis eius vastare civibus, aedificiis, pecore,” Stat. Theb. 3. 576, “agrosque viris annosaque vastant Oppida,” though in the former passage ‘vastant’ has its more usual sense, meaning not only to dispeople but to ravage. The construction is not altogether easy to analyze: but it seems best to take it ‘dispeople them in respect of their cultivators.’ We may comp. the constructions of “viduo” and “vacuo,” “viduus” and “vacuus” being more or less parallel to “vastus.” ‘Vastare’ of simple dispeopling occurs again Stat. Theb. 4. 297.
 Et: besides all the Latin forces, they send for foreign aid. Venulus is a Tiburtine (11. 742, 757), and as Tibur, according to the legends, was an Argive colony, he is a proper ambassador to Diomede. The city of Diomede was Argyripa (afterwards Arpi) in Apulia; and the legend that Diomede had founded it after the Trojan war very likely arose from the similarity of the name Argyripa to Argos. “Magna Diomedis ab urbe” 11. 226, where there is another reading ‘magni.’
 Advectum may be “advectum esse,” but it seems better taken as a participle, ‘que—et’ coupling the two grounds of complaint against Aeneas. “Victosque Penatis” 1. 68. Here ‘victos’ is meant to tell upon Diomede.
 Multasque viro se adiungere gentis is a diplomatic exaggeration, even though we should give Virg. the benefit of Evander and the Agyllines, who are not yet introduced. It seems better with Donatus and Thiel to suppose the misrepresentation to be intentional than with Wagn. to attribute it to “Vergilius aliquando dormitans.” Ribbeck comp. 7. 238, which may stand as a verbal parallel, as he probably intends, but does not help to explain the fact.
 Pugnae for “belli:” comp. 7. 611: so that the meaning is, what he hopes to get by the war. ‘Ipsi’ is generally, and perhaps rightly, taken of Diomede, the insinuation being that he is more likely to be threatened as an old enemy of Troy than Turnus or Latinus. But ‘ipsi’ may be Aeneas, as we should say “what he means by this he knows best,” without meaning to imply that we were really ignorant. Comp. 5. 788, “Caussas tanti sciat illa furoris.”
 Regi—regi seems meant to be in keeping with the formal tone of the communication to Diomede, which altogether is more in the style of prose than of verse. There seems to be the same formality in 9. 369, “Turno regi responsa ferebant,” 11. 294, “Et responsa simul quae sint, rex optume, regis Audisti.” Comp. Soph. O. R. 284 ἄνακτ᾽ ἄνακτι ταὔθ᾽ ὁρῶντ᾽ ἐπίσταμαι Μάλιστα Φοίβῳ Τειρεσίαν.
[18-35] ‘Meantime Aeneas, distracted with care, lies down to sleep, when the god of the Tiber appears to him.’