Haud nequiquam exterrita, with no empty fear. Comp. Aesch. Ag. 1316, οὔτοι δυσοίζω, θάμνον ὡς ὄρνις, φόβῳ Ἄλλως, G. 4. 353, “O gemitu non frustra exterrita tanto.” There is force in the position of ‘mater.’
 Schrader conj. ‘diro,’ which Heyne prefers; but ‘durus’ is an ordinary epithet of war, as in 10. 146, and it may be meant here to point a contrast with Venus' nature; comp. 7. 806. ‘Tumultu’ above v. 4.
 Imitated from Lucr. 1.38 foll., which Cerda comp. “Hunc tu, diva, tuo recubantem corpore sancto Circumfusa super suavis ex ore loquelas Funde, petens placidam Romanis, incluta, pacem,” ‘Dictis’ dat.; Venus breathes on her words the spirit of love. The request of Venus is modelled on that of Thetis to Hephaestus, Il. 18. 369 foll., her blandishments on those practised by Here on Zeus Il. 14. 159 foll.
 Debita is explained by ‘vastabant’ or ‘bello,’ due to destruction. Wagn. comp. 9. 107 “tempora Parcae Debita conplerant,” i. e. “conpleri debita,” G. l. 223, “Debita quam sulcis committas semina,” i. e. “committi debita” or “debita sulcis.” The word, like ‘casuras,’ gives the reason why she had not made the request: and so “incassum,” v. 378. ‘Ignibus’ with ‘casuras,’ not, as has been thought, with ‘vastabant.’
 Miseris, the Trojans, implied in ‘Pergama’ and ‘arces.’ Serv. remarks “Atqui honestum est miseris subvenire; sed hoc dicit, Cur te fatigarem pro hominibus fati necessitate perituris?” We may say that ‘miseris’ shows the strong inducement Venus had to make a request which she nevertheless forbore. The sense of ‘arma’ seems to be fixed by v. 383; but the connexion of the word in this sense with the genitive ‘artis opisque tuae’ is rather harsh, so that otherwise we might have preferred to take it generally, the weapons (resources) of thy art and power.
 Med. originally had ‘incassumque.’
 The Codex Minoraugiensis has ‘dolorem,’ which is plausible: but Virg. occasionally repeats words at short intervals elsewhere, and we must recollect that the Aeneid is an unfinished poem.
 Eadem merely = nevertheless, admitting her change of conduct. See Madv. § 488, who quotes from Cic. Off. (not Legg.) 1. 24, “Inventi multi sunt qui vitam pro patria profundere parati essent, iidem gloriae iacturam ne minimam quidem facere vellent.” “Supplex venio” 11. 365. ‘Sanctum mihi numen’ has caused some difficulty, Schrader conjecturing “sanctum tibi nomen” in apposition with ‘genetrix,’ while Ribbeck reads “sanctum mihi nomen” from Gud., and perhaps originally Pal., throwing the words into a parenthesis. But there is some force in the omission of ‘tuum,’ which seems to denote a reverential distance, ‘a deity I have ever revered.’ Virg. was doubtless thinking of Hephaestus' language, Il. 18. 394, ἦ ῥά νύ μοι δεινή τε καὶ αἰδοίη θεὸς ἔνδον. For ‘numen rogo’ comp. “supplex tua numina posco” 1. 666.
 Virg.'s art has hardly succeeded in concealing the indelicacy of Venus' asking a favour for the offspring of her adultery. Probably he thought of the language of Zeus to Here, Il. 14. 315 foll. Thetis weeps in addressing Hephaestus, Il. 18. 428.
 ‘In me’ is the germ of the exaggeration which appears fully developed in 10. 29.
 Cunctantem: he was not persuaded at first, though afterwards he speaks as if he had had no hesitation. ‘Lacertis’ is instrumental, ‘amplexu’ perhaps modal: or we may say that ‘amplexu molli fovet’ has the force of “molliter amplectitur.” The expression is like “linguis micat ore trisulcis” G. 3. 439 (note).—Comp. generally the passage from Lucr. quoted on v. 373.
 Rom. and others have ‘calefacta.’ ‘Labefactus’ is a Lucretian word, = “solutus:” comp. the whole passage Lucr. 3.592—602. Under other circumstances Virg. might have thought it an unduly strong expression: here it reminds us of the natural hardness of the bones. have had it in a similar but slightly more metaphorical sense 4. 395.
 The passion thrills through his being with the speed of lightning. has ‘haud secus.’ ‘Olim cum’ i. q. “si quando:” see on G. 2. 403. ‘Rupta’ seems to include the two notions of bursting forth, as in 7. 569, and being rent or produced by the act of rending, which agrees with the conception of ‘rima.’ ‘Tonitru’ prob. instrum., the thunder being regarded as the cause of the explosion: but it may be modal like “vento” G. 1. 431. ‘Corusco’ with ‘lumine.’
 Virg. conceives of the lightning a sudden rent made across the dark atmosphere of cloud. Comp. 1. 123, “rimis fatiscunt” of rents in the sides of vessels. The Lucretian account of the origin of lightning (6. 96 foll.) constantly reiterates the notion of the bursting of the clouds (see vv. 138, 203, 283, &c.), and Virg. varies it by supposing the lightning to be not the thing that issues through the rent but the rent itself. Perhaps Virg. was thinking specially of Lucr. 6.282 foll. “maturum tum quasi fulmen Perscindit subito nubem, ferturque coruscis Omnia luminibus lustrans loca percitus arddor.”
 The object of ‘sensit’ is to be supplied from ‘dolis’ and ‘formae:’ she perceived the success of her blandishments and the effect of her beauty. Thus it is not strictly parallel to 2. 377, though it has something in common with it. Virg. was thinking of δολοφρονέουσα Il. 14.300, 329, as Cerda remarks. There is also some resemblance to 4. 128, “dolis risit Cytherea repertis,” comp. by Heyne, though there the stratagem is not her own, but Juno's, which she has detected.
 Devictus, the reading before Heins., is the original reading of Gud., and the corrected one of Pal., and is supported by Lucr. 1.34, which Virg. evidently had in his mind, “aeterno devictus volnere amoris,” ‘devinctus’ there having no higher authority than a quotation in the Schol. on Statius: see Lachm. in loco. But Virg. may well have wished to change the metaphor for variety's sake, just as he has substituted ‘amore’ for “volnere amoris.” ‘Aeterno’ shows that Vulcan is overcome by a power as mighty as himself.
 Ex alto petere is a phrase for going far back. Comp. Attius Arm. Iud. fr. 14, “Cur vetera tam ex alto appetissis discidia, Agamemno?” So G. 4. 285, “Altius omnem Expediam prima repetens ab origine famam.” ‘Fiducia cessit Quo tibi:’ comp. 2. 595, “quonam nostri tibi cura recessit?” G. 4. 324, “quo tibi nostri Pulsus amor?” and with the sentiment generally 5. 800. ‘Fiducia mei’ like “generis fiducia” 1. 132.
 Heins. objected to the repetition of ‘fuisset,’ wishing either to read ‘subisset’ in the previous line, as in 9. 757, or to expunge the present line altogether: Jahn however thinks with justice that the repetition gives symmetry and point to the sentence. It may be said in fact to bring out the notion of the correspondence of the will of fate with that of Venus, which Vulcan wishes to express. So far as any definite theological meaning is to be attached to this and the two following lines, it seems to be that the fate of Troy might have been delayed, had Venus wished it, though not averted, a view agreeing with the language of Virg. elsewhere, 1. 299., 7. 313 foll., 10. 624 foll. ‘Teucros’ seems to be put for Aeneas alone, by a rhetorical exaggeration. Pal. originally had ‘Teucros nobis.’
 Jupiter is made co-ordinate with fate, if not the disposer of it, as in 10. 632. Serv. says that, according to the Etruscan books, the postponement of imminent evils is to be sought from Jupiter in the first instance, from the fates in the second. He adds from the same or a similar source, that destiny was supposed to be capable of being delayed for ten years, a strange notion, but one which may have formed part of Virg.'s multifarious knowledge. ‘Vetabant’ is apparently used in its proper sense: ‘the fates did not forbid, if you had only known it.’ Not unlike is Hor. 1 Od. 27. 19, “Quanta laborabas Charybdi,” ‘you were struggling all this while.’
 He adopts Venus' identification of herself with Aeneas. ‘Mens,’ intention, as in 10. 182., 12. 554.
 Quod relative clause after v. 401. For ‘potest’ some MSS. (including two of Ribbeck's) and early editions give ‘potestur,’ an archaic form introduced in ignorance of the quantity of ‘electro.’ Comp. 9. 9. ‘Electro’ G. 3. 522. Here it is the metal, compounded of gold and silver.
 Animae, the air blowing the bellows, v. 449. The Homeric Hephaestus has no assistants but his φῦσαι, which seem to act of themselves when he sets them to work, Il. 18. 468 foll. Instead of regularly completing the sentence, Virg. has introduced a clause of equivalent meaning, ‘absiste’ &c. “Absiste moveri” 6. 399.
 Indubitare, as Serv. remarks, appears to occur in no earlier writer. Stat. Silv. 3. 5. 110 has “ingratus qui plura adnecto tuisque Moribus indubito,” doubtless imitating Virg. The construction, which seems peculiar, not to say irregular, may perhaps be compared with “fatis incerta feror” 4. 110. “Dubitare in aliqua re” seems a possible construction, though no instances of it are quoted.
 Infusum, an old reading mentioned by Serv., is found in Pal. (originally) and in Rom. apparently from a correction.
[407-453] ‘Vulcan wakes early and goes to the workshop in his island, where he finds the Cyclops making thunderbolts, and bids them prepare a suit of armour for Aeneas. They begin immediately.’