Pro nomine tanto is variously explained, “pro tui nominis gloria,” Serv., followed by Wagn.; “pro socii nomine, ad quem tu supplex venias,” Gossrau; “pro fama quae te ad nos adduxit,” Heyne, followed by Forb. The last seems the most natural. The Arcadians had the name of a great nation, but were only a small band of settlers, and had difficulty in defending their own homes. Forb. comp. Aeneas' compliment to Evander's fame v. 132 above, “tua terris didita fama.” ‘Pro nomine’ like “pro tempore” E. 7. 35. ‘Belli’ may be either an objective gen. or one of quality, i. q. “bellicum auxilium.”
 Heyne prefers “circumtonat,” the second reading of Med., which would be needlessly strong in a comparatively simple passage. For ‘armis’ Rom. has ‘arans:’ ‘Arcens’ and ‘Arruns’ are also found: both however are names of personages connected with Troy, not with the Rutulians, so that probably there is nothing in the variations but a transcriber's error. In the original reading of Pal. the last two letters and a half seem to be obliterated.
 “‘Ingentis populos’ non sine caussa dixit: nam tuscia duodecim Lucumones habuit, i. e. reges, quibus unus praeerat” Serv. This may explain ‘opulentaque regnis,’ though there may be also a reference, natural in the mouth of Roman poet, to the capacity of the Etruscans for forming a great empire, as is remarked on the parallel passage “gravidam inperiis belloque frementem Italiam” 4. 229. The kings of the Italian nations have been dwelt on already, 7. 37, 42, 642, as the chief elements of the greatness of the struggle. ‘Regnis’ seems to mean ‘in respect of kingdoms,’ like “donis opulentum” 1. 447.
 This trait seems to have been borrowed by Virg. from the historical barbarities of the Etruscan pirates, mentioned in a fragment (83 ed. Nobbe) of Cicero's Hortensius, preserved by Augustin Conra Pelagian. 4. 15: “qui quondam cum in praedonum Etruscorum manus incidissent, crudelitate excogitata necabantur: quorum corpora viva cum mortuis, adversa adversis adcommodata, quam aptissime (artissime?) colligabantur.”
 Tormenti genus is an acc. in apposition to the sentence, what would be explained in Greek us a cogn. acc., like “triste ministerium” 6. 223. Here it has the force of an exclamation, as if it had been “quale genus tormenti!” ‘Sanie taboque fluentis’ refers to the decomposition, which would seem to extend from the dead to the living. It is natural to suppose that the dead had died by violence: but ‘sanie’ is applied to the decomposition arising from the bite of a serpent, Lucan 9. 768, 781.
 Sic as in 1. 225., 7. 668, collecting, as Forb. remarks, the sense of the antecedent clause.
 Ad supplicium reposcunt like “ad poenam vocabit” 6. 821. “Poenas reposcere ab aliquo” is found Catull. 48 (50). 20. See on 2. 139. Serv. seems right in explaining ‘praesenti Marte’ “sine aliqua dilatione:” comp. “praesens poena” Cic. De Div. 2. 59, Juv. 1. 142. Otherwise we might make it local: they demand back Mezentius by leading an army to Turnus' gates. It is not clear whether ‘reposcunt’ is a historic present, or represents the existing attitude of the Etruscans.
 Comp. generally 4. 416 foll. The feelings of those on board the ships are transferred to the ships themselves. ‘condensae’ 2. 517 note.
 “signa ferre” 7. 628 note. The reference here as there is to an engagement by land, so that the eagerness of the nation is expressed by saying that the ships cry out for a land engagement, the meaning being that the army is eager to get to shore.
 “fata canens” 10. 417. ‘Maeonia’ seems to stand for Etruria Ov. M. 3. 581, and so it may be here, though it is equally natural to explain it of the old country of the Etruscans, “gens Lydia.” ‘Delecta iuventus’ 4. 130., 9. 226. Here it seems to refer to the whole army, spoken of as the prime of the nation. Comp. “delectus” of a levy.
 “‘Flos veterum’ Ennianum” Serv. referring, as Ribbeck thinks, to A. 9. fr. 6, “Flos delibatus populi suadaeque medulla.” ‘Veterum virum’ is explained by Heyne “populi qui antiquam originem habet,” perhap rightly, though ‘veteres viri’ elsewhere (e. g. v. 356 above) refers to an earlier generation. Perhaps we may say that virg. conceived of the vouth of Etruria as of buds springing from an old stock: or ‘veterum’ may be said in the spirit of the poet, not in that of the soothsayer: comp. 3. 704 &c. ‘Virtus’ would hardly have been used without ‘flos?’ comp. however 5. 754, “Exigui numero, sed bello vivida virtus.” We might distinguish ‘hostem’ from ‘Mezentius,’ taking it of Turnus and the rutulians: but it seems hardly worth while.
 Dolor of indignation v. 220.
 Externos duces may be called an oracular plural, like “externi generi” 7. 98. ‘Optate,’ choose, not wish or wait for. Serv. gives both explanations, though there seems some corruption or confusion in his text.
 The army was drawn up ready for action, though it did not venture to march. ‘Hoc campo,’ as if it were in sight, being really at no great distance. Comp vv. 603 foll. With ‘monitis exterrita divom’ comp. 4. 353, “Admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago.”
 “Mandare honores” “magistratum” are found in Cic. and Caes.: see Freund. Serv. says that the Etrusean kings had not really crowns, meaning apparently crowns of gold: so that, as Gossrau remarks, we may suppose the word to be used loosely for the tiara, fillet, or other royal ornament of the head. Dionys. Hal. 3. 61 mentions a golden crown, an ivory throne, a sceptre surmounted by an eagle, together with the “tunica palmata” and “toga picta,” as the ensigns of roman royalty; and Virg. may well have thought of this rather than of the strict propriety of Etruscan costume. Comp. generally 11. 334. Heyne read ‘Tarcho:’ but the final ‘a’ is found in all Ribbeck's MSS.
 Tarda gelu refers to the sluggish flow of an old man's blood. “Gelidus tardante senecta Sanguis hebet” 5. 395. ‘Saeculum’ is the period of human life, which some extended to a hundred, others cut down to thirty years (Dict. A. s. v.), so that when an old man is said to have seen more ‘saecula’ than one we must either understand the expression hyperbolically or interpret ‘saeculum’ in its narrower sense. Comp. the three generations of the Homeric Nestor and the trouble they have given to those who make history out of poetry: who Lucr. 1.202, “Multaque vivendo vitalia vincere saecla.” The structure of the line recalls 7. 440.
 With the feeling contained in ‘invidet’ comp. 5. 415 “aemula ecdum Temporibus geminis canebat sparsa senectus” ‘Ad fortic’ may go either with ‘serae’ or ‘vires’ (comp. v. 473 above): perhaps we may say it belongs to both. Forb. comp. Sil. 3. 255, “Consilio viridis sed belli serus Ilertes.”
 Wagn. has restored ‘gnatum’ from Rom., though Med., Pal., and Gud. have ‘natum.’ See on 6. 867. The subjectmatter of the encouragement is of course to be gathered from the context, especially v. 507. “Mixtus matre Sabella:” see on 6. 762, and comp. for the construction 7. 661.
 Fatum indulget, the reading before Heins., is found in Rom. and originally in Gud.; it seems also to have been originally intended by Pal., which has ‘fatum indulges’ altered into ‘fata indulgent.’ ‘Indulgent’ is contrasted with ‘invidet.’
 “‘Spes’ quia multa sibi de eins virtute promittebat pater, ‘solatium’ quia amissa coniuge unici filii utebatur solatio” Serv. The plural was doubtless adopted for metrical reasons, but it has a force of its own.
 Germ. comp. Apoll. R. 2. 802 foll., where Lyens offers his son Dascylus to accompany Jason. ‘Tolerare,’ &c.: comp. generally Hor. 3 Od. 2. 1 foll. Enn. A. 10 fr. 4 has “bellum tolerare potentes.”
 Nomine Med., and so Serv., ‘munere’ Rom., Pal., Gud. Ribbeck adopts the latter, which Heins. had preferred, remarking that Evander had not said that he gave the cavalry to Aeneas but to Pallas. But the inconsistency is natural and Virgilian enough: Evander had really given the cavalry to Aeneas, though, with a father's tenderness, he chose to speak of them as a gift to his son, whom he now allows to make a similar present in his own name. Ribbeck also reads ‘sibi,’ which is found in Pal. from a correction, and was the original reading of Gud. The peculiarity of the construction (with which comp. “suo sibi hunc gladio iugulo” Ter. Adelph. 5. 8. 35 and other instances in Freund) may seem in its favour: but it is more probable that it arises from a transcriber's confusion, just as Med. originally had ‘tuo sibi nomine.’
[520-540] ‘A sound and flash as of armour are heard and seen. Aeneas recognizes the sign as coming from Venus, and is lifted up by the prospect of the war.’