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[608] The ‘nimbi’ seem to be the same as the “nubes” mentioned v. 528, probably with a reference to the thunder, though in that case Virg. would have forgotten that it was thunder from a cloudless sky. Perhaps we are meant to conceive of the day as advanced towards evening, as the Trojans and Areadians appear to have encamped for the night. In Hom. Thetis brings the arms at daybreak. A contrast is clearly intended between the dark clouds and the fair goddess, ‘des candida.’ For ‘aetherios nimbos’ comp. 5. 13, ‘cinxerunt aethera nimbi.

[609] Η (Thetis) δ᾽ ἐς νῆας ἵκανε, θεοῦ πάρα δῶρα φέρουσα Il. 19. 3. Achilles is found in the midst of his comrades: Aeneas is evidently apart from his. ‘In valle reducta’ 6. 703.

[610] The common reading is ‘egelido,’ which is found in Med. (originally), and in two of Ribbeck's cursives (one of them corrected), and was read by Serv. ‘Et gelido’ however is read by Pal., Rom., Gud. and by Med. corrected. (Fragm. Vat. which is quoted for it, is in this case identical with med., a leaf of Med. comprising vv. 585—642 having been separated from it and placed in the Vat. MS.) Ribbeck reads ‘ecgelido:’ comp. v. 286. ‘Et’ is not weak, as Forb. thinks, obut sufficiently Virgilian, the combination ‘procul et secretum’ resembling “extremus galeaque ima” 5. 498, “longius ex altoqueG. 3. 238 (wrongly explained in first edition). the classical sense of ‘egelidus’ seems to be cool (comp. Catull. 44 (46). 1, “Iam ver egelidos refert tepores”); Serv. however makes the prefix intensive, and so Auson., Tetrastichs on the Caesars, 21. 1 “Inpiger egelido movet arma Severus ab Histro.” The river has just been called ‘gelidus’ v. 597. ‘Secretum flumine,’ in the retirement of the river: “secreti ad fluminis undam” 3. 389.

[611] Adfata estobtulit, ὕστερον πρότερον, Serv. ‘Obtulit ultro’ 2. 59 Here ‘ultro’ seems almost i. q. “inprovisa.

[612] Promissa, promised by Venus to Aeneas, vv. 531, 535, though it might refer to Vulcan's promise to Venus (comp. 7. 541, “Promissi dea facta potens”). The contruction, as Wagn. remarks, is not “en, perfecta sunt,” but ‘en munera.’ The same is to be said of 7. 545, “En, perfecta tibi bello discordia tristi:” comp. ib. 452, “En ego victa situ.

[613] It is not easy in this and other similar passages to say whether the clause introduced by ‘ne’ is subjoined, ‘that you may not,’ or an independent imperative ‘do not.’ Perhaps it is best to decide each case on its own merits. Here the former seems the more idiomatic.

[614] “Me solum Teucri in certamina poscunt” 11. 434.

[615] Amplexus petere correlative to “amplexus dare” 1. 687.

[616] Adversa, opposite, where he could see them at once. κατὰ τεύχἐ ἔθηκε Πρόσθεν Ἀχιλλῆος Il. 19. 12.

[617] Honore is referred by Serv. to the privilege of seeing his mother face to face, which is very unlikely. Heyne understands it much better of the gift (comp. its use of rewards and of offerings to the Gods): but Wagn. is perhaps right in referring it to the beauty of the armour. Comp. Il. 19. 18, 19, τέρπετο δ᾽ ἐν χείρεσσιν ἔχων θεοῦ ἀγλαὰ δῶρα. Αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ φρεσὶν ᾗσι τετάρπετο δαίδαλα λεύσσων.

[618] ‘Expleri nequit’ vv. 265, 559. “Oculos per cuncta ferenti” 2. 570.

[619] Inter manus 2. 681. “Huc illuc vinclorum inmensa volumina versat” 5. 408. ‘Bracchia’ points to the size of the different parts of the armour, which fill the arms he takes them up.

[620] Vomentem Med., Rom., Gud. corrected, with a variant ‘moventem,’ ‘minantem’ Pal., Gud. originally. Ribbeck adopts the latter, but the word rather suggests the nodding of the crest than the flashing of the metal, though the hair of the crest may have been golden, as in Il. 19. 383. ‘Vomentem’ is supported by v. 681., 10. 271, and by Auson. Periocha Il. 5, “vomit aurea flammas Cassis et undantem clipeus defulgurat ignem,” a translation of δαῖέ οἱ ἐκ κόρυθός τε καὶ ἀσπίδος ἀκάματον πῦρ.

[621] Fatiferum deadly. “Fatifer arcus” 9. 631. ‘Ex aere rigentem’ i. q. “ex aere rigenti.

[622] Sanguineam of the ruddy colour of the metal, as is explained by the following simile. ‘Ingentem’ is added perhaps a little inartistically. For the comParison see on 7. 142. It is from Apoll. R. 4. 125, where the golden fleece is said to be νεφέλῃ ἐναλίγκιον τ᾽ ἀνίοντος Ἠελίου φλογερῇσιν ἐρεύθεται ἀκτίνεσσιν. ‘Caerula,’ dark, like κυανέην νεφέλην Od. 12. 405.

[624] Levis ocreas 7. 634. ‘Electro’ v. 402. ‘Recocto,’ smelted again and again. “Saepe purgato, quia quanto plus coquitur melius fit” Serv. Forb. comp. Pliny 33. 3 (20), “[aes] an satis recoctum sit splendore deprehendente.” The greaves seem to have been of electrum inlaid with gold.

[625] Textum of the shield regarded as a composition of plates or pieces of metal, perhaps referring also to the workmanship on the surface. Lucr. 6.1054 talks of “ferrea texta,” apparently meaning things made of iron. Comp. also Id. 5.94, “tria talia texta,” of the fabric of earth, air, and sea.

[626-731] ‘On the shield was represented the various scenes in the life of the Roman nation: Romulus and Remus with the wolf, the rape of the Sabines with the consequent war and treaty, the punishment of Mettus Fuffetius, Porsenna baffled by Cocles and Cloelia, Manlius on the Capitol surprised by the Gauls, the religious ceremonials of the city, Catiline in Tartarus and Cato in Elysium, the sea and the battle of Actium, the rout, and the triumph.’

[627] Vatum ignarus has created a good deal of difficulty, as it seems strange to speak of a God as taught by prophets. But it is evident from other passages that a God was not supposed necessarily to know the future: Venus in Book I. owes her information to Jupiter: in Book III. Jupiter delivers a prediction to Apollo, who delivered it in turn to the Harpy Celaeno. So in Aesch. Prom. 209, 873 Prometheus is taught the future by his mother Themis. In Aesch. Emn, 1 foll. we have the regular succession of deities who inspired the Delphic Oracle, representing apparently the prophetic element under the several divine dynasties, Gaia, Themis, Phoebe, and finally Phoebus. Vulcan might naturally be conceived as learning of one or more these, who might properly be called ‘vates,’ as the name is frequently given to Apollo. Gossrau takes ‘vatum ignarus’ as “vates ignarus,” like “sancte deorum.” Cunningham and Wakef. read ‘fatum,’ an inadmissible crasis (see Pliny ap. Serv. on 2. 18), from a few inferior MSS., and others have preferred ‘fati,’ which, though plausible itself, is not stronger in MS. authority. Serv. says “Quibusdam videtur hunc versum omitti potuisse,” seemingly a mere critical opinion on internal grounds.

[628] ‘Iguipotens’ 10. 243. “Stirpem et genus onme futurum” 4. 622. “Genus stirpisG. 4. 282.

[629] There is the same doubt about ‘ab Ascanio’ as about “a Belo” 1. 730. Wagn. and Peerlkamp conj. ‘pugnanda,’ two inferior MSS having ‘pugnant,’ and ‘pugnantia:’ but it is natural that Virg. should regard the future as past when speaking of it as it appears to the eye of prophecy. ‘In ordine’ E. 7. 20: elsewhere in Virg. we have “ordine” or “ex ordine.

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