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[81] Substantially repeated from 2. 680. The wonder would be felt rather by the Trojans than by Aeneas, who had learnt to expect it. It matters little how we point after ‘monstrum,’ which may either be independent or in apposition to ‘sus.

[82, 83] The words are equivalent to “candida sus in litore procumbens per silvam conspicitur.” ‘Concolor’ is superfluous, but serves to impress the notion of the prodigy. ‘Procubuit’ perf. expressing present effect. Serv. comments on the termination of v. 83, “Horatius: et amica luto sus (1 Ep. 2. 26). Sciendum tamen hoc esse vitiosum, monosyllabo finiri versum, nisi forte ipso monosyllabo minora explicentur animalia. Ut (Hor. A. P. 139) Parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Gratiosiores enim versus isti sunt secundum Lucilium.” Comp. the passage from Quintilian quoted on G. 1. 181.

[84] Enim here merely gives emphasis to ‘tibi,σοὶ δή. This appears to have been its original force: comp. the passages of Plautus quoted by Freund, and Livy 22. 25, “Cum laeta civitate dictator unus nihil nec famae nec litteris crederet, tum M. Metilius tribunus plebis id enim ferendum esse negat” (where Madvig, however, reads enimvero), a passage which may suggest that here as there we have a sort of quotation of the words actually spoken. So in G. 2. 509 it appears to strengthen “geminatus,” though its force there is by no means so clear. Wagn. quotes an obvious imitation from Sil. 13, 136, “Mactat, diva, tibi, tibi enim haec gratissima sacra.

[85] Mactat, sacra ferens is equivalent to “sacrificat.” “Mactat et sistit ad aram” is an obvious inversion; but the important words in the last clause are ‘cum grege.’ ‘Sistit ad aram’ is the correlative of “stabit ad aramG. 2. 395 note.

[86] Ea nocte, quam longa est, leniit obviously differs from any mere case of an historic present, and even from cases where an historic present and a perfect are joined by a conjunction as in 7. 169 &c. It is probably to be regarded simply as an irregularity, ‘quam longa est’ being written as if the historic present “lenit” was to follow, for which ‘leniit’ is substituted. “Hiemem quam longa” 4. 193. Virg. seems to imply that the day was spent in preparation and the voyage begun towards night.

[87] Refluens is to be taken in its proper sense with Serv., not with Forb. in that of “residens,” or with Thiel in that of “fluens.” It is not meant that the stream actually flows back to its source, which would be inconsistent with ‘substitit,’ but that its onward motion was checked so as to make it all but stationary, which would suggest the notion of flowing back.

[88] ‘Placidae paludis’ is a mere repetition of ‘mitis stagni:’ and ‘placidae’ and ‘mitis’ are a part of the same metaphor with ‘leniit.

[89] “Sternitur aequor aquis” 5. 821 note. The second ‘ut’ is not co-ordinate with the first, but dependent on it. ‘Luctamen,’ struggle, though in connexion with ‘abesset’ it acquires the notion of cause of struggle or impediment. “In lento luctantur marmore tonsae” 7. 28.

[90] Rumore secundo is rightly taken by Cerda to mean the cheering of the crews. Comp. 10. 266, “fugiuntque (grues) notos clamore secundo,” 5. 338, “plausuque volat fremituque secundo,” and a fragment from an old tragedy (inc. inc. fr. 46 Ribbeck), “Solvere imperat secundo rumore adversaque avi.” “Secundo rumore,” “adverso rumore” are phrases used to signify general approbation and the contrary. See the commentators on Hor. 1 Ep. 10. 9. Heyne, fancying with Donatus that ‘rumor’ meant the noise of the waters, connected ‘rumore secundo’ with what follows. An absurd reading ‘Rumone’ (the old name of the Tiber) is mentioned by Serv. with approbation, and has found its way into some MSS. and even into Med. a m. p.: but even if Virg. were likely to have introduced the name, ‘secundo’ would contradict v. 58. Rom. and others, including quotations in Non. and Macrob, have ‘peragunt’ for ‘celerant,’ from 6. 384, and Pierius' Medicean has ‘celebrant:’ see on 4. 641., 5. 609. Canon. gives ‘celebrant clamore.

[91] From Enn. A. 14. fr. 2: “Labitur uncta carina, volat super impetus undas:” Macrob. Sat. 6. 1.

[92] The repetition of ‘mirantur’ serves instead of a repetition of ‘et:’ see on E. 4. 6. ‘Nemus insuetum’ like “ignaros montisE. 6. 40.

[93] The shields appear to have been hung along the after part of the galley: comp. 1. 183, “celsis in puppibus arma Caici.” For ‘pictas carinas’ see on 5. 663. Heyne put a comma after ‘virum;’ but the harsh collocation of ‘que’ with the second word in the clause is unknown to Virg.

[94] Remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, give neither day nor night any respite: in prose, spend day and night in incessant rowing. Prop. 5. 11. 81, “sSat tibi sint noctes quas de me, Paulle, fatiges.” Heyne comp. also 10. 807, “diem exercere.” “Conplexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur” 5. 766.

[95] Superant: see on v. 58. ‘Variis teguntur arboribus,’ pass under the shade of various trees. Wagn. finds the clause otiose: but we may well fancy the attention of the Trojans attracted by the variety of the trees. In the next clause pictorial effect pleads strongly for Serv.'s interpretation, referring the words to sailing through the reflection of the trees on the water, though the thought may be too modern for Virg. Even if we take the clause as a mere repetition of the preceding, we may still suppose that Virg. intended us to think of the reflection, by the juxtaposition of the words ‘viridis’ and ‘placido.’ The whole passage is eminenntly characteristic of Virg., both in its graceful feeling and in its abstinent brevity. He is paying a tribute, we may remember, to the beauty of the river of Rome.

[97] Ἦμος δ᾽ ἠέλιος μέσον οὐρανὸν ἀμφιβεβήκει Il. 8. 68 &c. “Medium sol igneus orbem HauseratG. 4. 426 note. With this and the next line comp. generally 3. 521 foll.

[98] The visit to Evander is well contrived to bring Aeneas to the site of Rome. “Raris habitata mapalia tectisG. 3. 340. ‘Domorum tecta,’ 12. 132. The passage is imitated by Ov. F. 5. 93, “Hic, ubi nunc Roma est, orbis caput, arbor et herbae Et paucae pecudes et casa rara fuit.

[100] Tum, which serves as a conjunction, couples clauses not strictly parallel. See on G. 2. 208. ‘Res inopes’ following ‘quae’ may also remind us of “has . . . stridentia limina” 7. 611. foll. With ‘res inopes’ contrast “maxumarerum Roma” 7. 602, if the gen. there is partiive. ‘Euandrus’ is the form given in all Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Euander,’ the form before Heins., is supported by no good MS. here or elsewhere, except in 10. 515.

[101] Advertunt proras 7. 35.

[102-125] ‘They find Evander sacrificing to Hercules. Pallas, his son, comes to meet them, and, being informed of thier errand, bids them welcome.’

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