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[107] Ergo introduces an event as a consequence of what precedes, as in G. 4. 77.

[109] Sacris ratibus, the order before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. Diomedes p. 431 mentions a reading ‘sacras,’ which he explains “abominandas.” With ‘depellere’ comp. “depulit” v. 78, “dis depellentibus” Pers. 5. 167, i. q. “averruncis.”

[110] Primum, then and not till then, denoting as it were the expectation with which nature awaited the event. Comp. E. 1. 45, “Hoc mihi responsum primus dedit illa petenti” and see on A. 7. 118. ‘Effulsit,’ the reading before Heins., is found in two or three of Ribbeck's cursives: see v. 731 below. The phaenomenon intended seems to be an unexpected flash of lightning and peal of thunder, the latter being represented by the ‘Idaei chori,’ the Corybantes, who are supposed to clash their cymbals, and by the voice. Comp. 8. 524 foll., where the appearance seems to be substantially the same.

[111] The storm-cloud sweeps over the sky from east to west.

[113] Excidit (6. 686) gives the notion of utterance; the voice passes through the sky, but it seems to come from the presence in the cloud. ‘Agmina conplet’ like “Fama Euandrum replet” 11. 140: comp. also 4. 189. It is a bold variety for “auris conplere” or “loca conplere,” as Heyne remarks.

[114] “Trepidavit aetas Claudere lustrum” Hor. 2 Od. 4. 23.

[115] Armare manus 11. 682: comp. Hor. 4 Od. 4. 21 “dextras obarmet.

[117] Wagn. rightly understands ‘deae pelagi’ not as voc., but as nom. qualifying ‘ite’ Serv. mentions a doubt whether ‘genetrix iubet’ was part of the speech, or part of the subsequent narrative. Cybele calls herself ‘genetrix’ not merely as the mother of the gods, but as goddess of Ida and so parent of the trees that grew there. ‘Et’ has the force of ‘accordingly.’

[118] Puppes, as turned to the shore. ‘Vincula’ 1. 168.

[119] Virg. doubtless shrunk from making the transformation take place in open view, and so he represents the ships as sinking to reappear as sea-nymphs: but though we may commend his judgment in this, the comParison to dolphins and the detail ‘demersis rostris’ must strike a modern reader as grotesque. Ovid, who copies the incident with some variations M. 14. 530 foll.), making it take place after the failure of the embassy to Diomedes (see A. 11), and describing the conflagration as actually begun when Cybele interposes, naturally dwells with minuteness on the process of metamorphosis.

[120] Hinc hereupon. Rom. has ‘mirabile dictu,’ from a recollection of other passages where the expression is used parenthetically. “Visu mirabile monstrum” is parenthetical 10. 637.

[121] Reddunt se of emerging from the water (comp. 5. 178 “fundo redditus imo est”), perhaps with a further notion of corresponding to the number of the ships. ‘Totidem’ however is more likely to be nom. than acc., though it may be taken as qualifying ‘reddunt,’ like “infert se saeptus nebula” 1. 440 &c. Some copies mentioned by Pierius have ‘redduntur.

[122] This line is omitted in all Ribbeck's MSS., including fragm. Vat., and is doubtless an interpolation from 10. 223. The MSS. which give it here are not agreed about its place, some of them putting it before v. 121, while in one it comes after v. 142; the reading of the last word too varies, some having ‘puppes,’ others ‘naves.’ In itself it is unobjectionable, except that perhaps ‘prorae’ hardly agrees with ‘puppes’ v. 118, at least if we suppose Virg. to mean that the prows are fastened to the shore. Pierius thinks the order which reverses vv. 121, 122 “longe elegantior:” others may prefer the present, both as a matter of taste, and as avoiding the introduction of ‘aeratae prorae’ between ‘virgineae’ and its substantive.

[123-158] ‘Turnus declares that the portent is adverse to the Trojans as robbing them of their ships and cutting off the means of escape, denies that the fates are in their favour, and promises to take this new Troy not by stratagem but by force of arms.’

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