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[176] For Nisus and Euryalus see 5. 294 foll. They are introduced here as if they had not been named before.

[177] ‘Hyrtacides’ 5. 492 note. ‘Comitem miserat’ 2. 86. ‘Ida’ is generally taken as a nymph, the mother of Nisus, who sends him to share Aeneas' fortunes. Peerlkamp however remarks with some force that Ida is not mentioned elsewhere as a nymph, and that there is something strange in representing Nisus as sent by his mother, when it does not appear that he was unusually young. That a young hero should be the son of a nymph is natural enough (comp. the story of Parthenopaeus as told by Stat. Theb. 4. 247 foll. &c.): but we should have expected to have had the fact mentioned more at length and less ambiguously. I incline then to take ‘Ida’ of the mountain, with Donatus and some critics mentioned by Serv. (who parallels ‘venatrix’ with “domitrix Epidaurus equorumG. 3. 44), and two or three of the early editors. Ida is called μητὴρ θηρῶν Il. 14. 283, Hymn to Aphrodite v. 68, as Taubm. remarks, and it is natural to speak of Nisus as having been born there, and as having learnt to use the bow and arrow from the place of his birth. There is a similar ambiguity about “quem mater Aricia misit” 7. 762.

[178] “Iaculo levibusque sagittis” 5. 68. ‘Iaculo celerem’ like “pedibus celerem” 4. 180, the swiftness being in respect of javelins and arrows, which he speeds swiftly to their mark.

[179] “Iuxta comes” 11. 479. “Quo pulchrior alter Non fuit” 7. 649. Ribbeck reads ‘it iuxta’ from a single inferior MS., which is not only unnecessary but less suited to the context, as they are not moving, but stationary.

[180] Heyne is right in saying that ‘Troiana neque induit arma’ merely means that no Trojan warrior was more beautiful, as against Forb., who, following Donatus, thinks the clause refers to the especial beauty of Euryalus' appearance in arms. Serv. strangely explains it “qui nondum bellicosa arma induerat . . . . pulcher quidem erat, sed nondum bellandi peritus.

[181] Macrob. Sat. 5. 13 makes the line a translation of Od. 10. 278, 279; but there is no particular resemblance, and the thought is common enough. Gossrau notes the peculiarity by which Euryalus is said to mark his own cheeks with the down of youth, and comp. Ov. M. 13. 753. The participle seems to be used as in 7. 666., 8. 460. ‘Prima iuventa’ 8. 160 note. ‘Iuventa’ here has something of the force of ἥβη, which is used of the down of youth.

[182] Amor unus seems to be a compound of “mens una” and “amor reciprocus.” “Pariter ruebant” 10. 756, where it seems to mean falling together. Here ‘ruebant’ must refer to the rush of the onset (comp. 7. 782), ‘pariter’ meaning that they accompanied each other and fought by each other's side.

[183] Tum quoque, then as at other times they were together. ‘Tenebant’ of holding a post, as in v. 169 above.

[184, 185] Heyne finds the germ of these two lines in Od. 4. 712, οὐκ οἶδ᾽ εἴ τίς μιν θεὸς ὤρορεν, ἠὲ καὶ αὐτοῦ Θυαὸς ἐφωρμήθη ἴμεν. The form into which the second half of the alternative is put by Virg. savours of the rhetorical age of Greek poetry. Taubm. comp. Menander Gnom. Mon. 434, νοῦς γὰρ ἡμῶν ἐστιν ἐν ἑκάστῳ θεός. ‘Addunt’ i. q. “dant,” as in G. 4. 149, “naturasapibusquas Iuppiteripse Addidit.” ‘Dira cupido’ 6. 373, G. 1. 37 notes. Here there is not the same blame intended: but the notion is still that of intense yearning overpowering the reason. “Dira cuppedine” Lucr. 4.1090.

[186] Varied from Il. 10. 220 (comp. by Germ.), where Diomede says to Nestor, ἔμ᾽ ὀτρύνει κραδίη καὶ θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ Ἀνδρῶν δυσμενέων δῦναι στρατόν (comp. ib. 329). ‘Invadere’ i. q. “adgredi,” 4. 265. ‘Aliquid’ virtually = “aliud quid:” see on 2. 48.

[187] For ‘agitat’ with inf. Forc. quotes Nepos Hamilc. 1,ut statim mente agitaret bellum renovare.” The inf. is in fact a noun, and the similar construction with “meditari” &c. would be a reason for hazarding the expression. ‘Quiete’ is explained by Gossrau after Serv. of remaining in station on the watch: but it is merely the opp. of ‘agitat.’ Pal. originally had ‘quiescit.

[188] Fiducia rerum above v. 142, ‘rerum’ being fortune or circumstances, as in 1. 178.

[189] Cerda comp. Tac. A. 1. 65, “Apud Romanos invalidi ignes, interruptae voces . . insomnes magis quam pervigiles,” Stat. Theb. 8. 266, “Incertaeque faces et iam male pervigil ignis.” ‘Sepulti’ was read by Heins. from Serv. (who explains it as from “sine pulsu”) and some copies, including one of Ribbeck's cursives: but Wagn. rightly attributes it to a recollection of 2. 265, and recalls ‘soluti.’ Sleep is said from different points of view to bind and to relax the limbs: see on 5. 857.

[190] “Percipe porroLucr. 6.46, where as here it seems to mean continuation, ‘go on to learn.’

[191] For ‘dubitare aliquid,’ to make the subject of question or consideration, Forc. comp. Cic. pro Rosc. Am. 31, “restat igitur ut hoc dubitemus, uter potius Sex. Roscium occiderit.” The two clauses of the line mean the same thing, as what he is meditating is the journey to Pallanteum, but in the former it is spoken of as an uncertainty, in the latter as a notion floating up to the surface, and temporarily at least preferred. “Quae nunc animo sententia surgit?” 1. 582.

[192] In Il. 10. 204 foll. Nestor proposes that some one should go to reconnoitre among the Trojans, and offers a reward; and so Hector ib. 303 foll. “Populumque patresque” 4. 682. Serv. says “Transfert in Troianos Romanam consuetudinem, ut solet plerumque. Prius enim iubebat aliquid populus, postea confirmabat senatus.

[193] Reportent, from the camp to Aeneas.

[194] Wagn. points after ‘tibi,’ so as to connect it with ‘posco:’ but the sense is really the same either way, and the rhythm is in favour of the more natural connexion. ‘Facti fama:’ Nestor and Hector both mention glory along with the reward as an inducement to undertake the danger, Il. 10. 212, 307.

[195] “‘Tumulo sub illo,quem manu monstrat Euryalo,” Gossrau.

[196] “Muros et moenia,” 2. 234. “Moenia Pallantea” v. 241 below. For ‘Pallanteus’ as the adj. of “Pallanteum” see on 4. 552. Here however we might say that as “Pallanteum” is the town of Pallas (8. 54), ‘Pallantea moenia’ are the walls or towers of Pallas. “Moenia Larissaea” ends a line similarly Catull. 62 (64). 36.

[197] Pierius and Heins. restored ‘percussus’ for ‘perculsus,’ which is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. The words are constantly confused, and in other passages (see on 1. 513) ‘perculsus’ seems to be the better word, going with ‘obstipuit’ in the sense of astonishment. Here however the meaning seems to be not that Euryalus is astonished at Nisus' love of glory, but that he is himself penetrated by the feeling, so that ‘percussus’ appears to be the right word, as in G. 2. 476, where it is similarly constructed with ‘amore.’ ‘Obstipuit’ denotes the complete possession taken of him by the enthusiasm. “Amor laudumG. 3. 112. Forb. comp. Lucr. 1.923, “Percussit thyrso laudis spes magna meum cor.

[199] Summis rebus of critical circumstances: see on 2. 322. Here it may either be abl., ‘adiungere’ being taken “adiungere tibi,” or it may be constructed with ‘adiungere,’ ‘adiungere summis rebus’ being equivalent to “adiungere tibi periclitanti.” Comp. v. 278 below.

[200] “Fuge credereLucr. 1.1052. ‘Mittam,’ as if Euryalus' acquiescence made him an agent in the matter.

[201] Perhaps, as the commentators think, from Il. 7. 198, where Ajax says ἐπεὶ οὐδ᾽ ἐμὲ νήϊδα γ᾽ οὕτως Ἔλπομαι ἐν Σαλαμῖνι γενέσθαι τε τραφέμεν τε: but his spirit is sufficiently unlike Euryalus'. The name ‘Opheltes’ occurs in the Theban legend, where it is the original name of the ill-fated Archemorus.

[202] Troiae labores 2. 11, 284., 4. 78.

[203] Tollere is used both of begetting and of bringing up (see Forc.), either of which senses it may bear here; but perhaps it is rather more in Virg.'s manner to make it a synonyme of ‘erudiit.’ Nothing can be inferred from these words about the exact age of Euryalus: all that he says is that his early life was passed during the siege. ‘Talia,’ “ut tu refugere possis et nolle me socium suscepti facti adiungere,” Heyne.

[204] He had performed exploits as a follower of the perilous fortunes of a courageous leader. “Magnanimum Aenean” 1. 260. “Fata secutus” 1. 382, in a different sense.

[205] Sall. Iug. 64 says of Metellus “Inerat contemptor animus et superbia, commune nobilitatis malum.” ‘Hic,’ as Serv. says, may be either pronoun or adverb: but the former seems more likely: see on 11. 510. ‘Lux’ of life G. 4. 255. ‘Istum’ is explained by ‘quo tendis.

[206] Bene emere opp. to “male emere,” which occurs Cic. ad Att. 2. 4, the goodness or badness of the bargain being estimated in relation to the purchaser. See Drakenborch on Sil. 4. 756. ‘Tendere’ of aiming 5. 489, 670.

[207] For ‘ad haec’ a correction in Pal. gives ‘ait,’ which may have arisen from ‘at,’ the transcriber's way of spelling ‘ad.’ ‘Tale’ in the mouth of Nisus, like “talia” in that of Euryalus v. 203, means ‘like what you imply.’ ‘De te’ seems to depend partly on ‘nil,’ partly on ‘verebar.’ The latter construction is found Cic. de Sen. 6 “De qua (Karthagine) non ante vereri desinam quam illam excisam esse cognovero.” So “de aliquo (aliqua re) metuere” is used: see Forc. ‘metuo.

[208] “Nec fas esset de te tale quippiam vereri.” For ‘non’ repeated by itself after a negative by way of strengthening it comp. Pseudo-Cic. de Harusp. Resp. 18, “Non ignovit, mihi crede, non.” So Aesch. Ag. 1299, οὐκ ἔστ᾽ ἄλυξις, οὔ, ξένοι. Serv. remarks that Nisus, in the very act of assuring Euryalus that he is worthy to be his companion, still contemplates himself as going alone: “Mire iusiurandum compositum sic enumerat, quasi relicturus eum, cum de virtutibus eius optume sentiat.” ‘Ovantem’ of victory 5. 331.

[209] Iuppiter aut quicumque: see on 4. 577. There is a similar doubt expressed, doubtless from reverential motives, by Livy 1. 2, speaking of Aeneas, “Situs est, quemcumque eum dici ius fasque est, super Numicum fluvium; Iovem indigitem appellant.” ‘Oculis haec aspicit aequis,’ nearly from 4. 372, where ‘aequis’ seems to mean just, not, as here, favourable. Comp. the frequent use of ἐποπτεύειν in Aesch. of divine regard. The meaning is, Jupiter, or whatever is the name of the supreme father. Pal. has ‘aspicis.

[210] Quae multa like “qualia multa” 7. 200 note. ‘Vides’ nearly i. q. “scis,” 11. 179.

[211] Si quis repeated, like “si forte” 2. 756. ‘In adversum’ is generally used in a physical sense, as in 8. 237: so we may suppose that here there is a metaphor from a person being dragged or carried off in an opposite direction to that in which he was going. Mr. Long, however, understands ‘in adversum’ as = ‘against an obstacle.’ The agency of chance is distinguished from that of an unfriendly deity, just as after Aeneas had told Venus 1. 377 that he had been driven on the African coast by accidental stress of weather, in speaking to Dido 3. 715 he ascribes the event to a god, meaning apparently that he now sees it is friendly providence, not accident. Comp. 3. 337.

[213] Raptum pugna is rightly explained by Cerda, rescued from the fray, the two alternatives being to rescue a friend's body or to ransom it.

[214] Serv. says that there was a doubt in his time about the punctuation, some connecting ‘solita’ with what goes before, others with what follows. Subsequent editors have generally adopted the former punctuation: Wagn., Gossrau, and Ribbeck prefer the latter. The objection to the former is the construction of the abl. with ‘mandet,’ which is undeniably harsh and unexampled. Yet it does not seem unlike Virg. to combine such expressions as ‘mandare humo’ (dat.) and ‘condere humo’ (abl.), while he may possibly be imitating some older phrase, in times when dat. and abl. were confused. ‘Solita,’ about which also difficulties have been raised, simply means, as Heyne says, “qua nos mortui condi et humari sollenni more solemus.” ‘Solita’ on the other hand goes awkwardly with ‘si qua Fortuna,’ though Ribbeck explains it, “non queritur Fortunae iniquitatem sed ut v. 210 multis idem accidere, ne singulare fatum timere videatur, significat,” to which it may be answered that while death in an expedition like that which Nisus contemplates is likely, it is not usual that the body should not be recovered. D. Heinsius and Burm. read ‘humo solida,’ which Heyne rightly condemns as only appropriate to the case of a shipwrecked man.

[215] Absenti, as cenotaphs were raised and honours paid to those whose bodies were elsewhere, 3. 304., 6. 505. ‘InferiasG. 4. 545. ‘Decoret sepulchro’ like “Nemo me lacrimis decoret,” Ennius' epitaph on himself. Here there may be a notion that the honour is a mere honour, as the body is absent.

[217] Spence (Polymetis) finds a difficulty here, as in 11. 35 the Trojan women are mentioned as being in Italy. But Heyne rightly remarks that Virg. cannot have meant the Trojans to have sailed without their wives, but only that the aged women were left in Sicily. ‘Ausa persequitur,’ a variety for “ausa est persequi.” Rom. has ‘a matribus.’

[218] Prosequitur, the reading before Pierius and Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Moenia Acestae:’ see 5. 717, 750 foll. We might have expected ‘magnae,’ as Acesta was the name of the place, and so Trapp conjectured: but the MSS. have no variety, and v. 286 supports ‘magni.

[219] Caussas nectis like “caussas innecte” 4. 51, where as here there seems to be the double notion of multiplying reasons and making them into a web for entanglement, though in the note there I have thrown doubt on the latter shade of meaning.

[220] Loco cedit 7. 332. As Forb. remarks, it is the opposite of “sedet (or “stat”) sententia.”

[221] “Adceleremus, ait” 6. 630. ‘Vigiles,’ those who were appointed to relieve them.

[222] Servant seems to combine the notions of keeping up and guarding, ‘vices’ in the latter connexion being something of a cognate acc. Serv. says some in his time connected ‘statione relicta’ with ‘vices,’ as if it were a sort of attributive abl. in place of a gen.

[223] Comes Niso graditur, like “cui fidus Achates It comes” 6. 158, walks by his side. ‘Regem’ of the prince Ascanius, like “regina” 6. 28 of the princess Ariadne.

[224-313] ‘They go to the generals, and Nisus proposes that he and Euryalus should go to seek Aeneas. Aletes applauds them, and Ascanius promises them rewards, and offers his friendship to Euryalus in particular. Euryalus commends his mother to the care of Ascanius, who undertakes to be a son to her. The generals give them presents of armour, and they start.’

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