Dives denotes abundance, not splendour. “Dives pecoris” E. 2. 20. ‘Pictai:’ see on 3. 354. The uncial MSS. are not clear about the word, Med. originally and Rom. having ‘picta,’ while in Pal. the final ‘i’ is in an erasure; but it is attested by Probus, Diomedes, and other grammarians. Cerda is perhaps right in taking ‘pictai vestis et auri’ as ἓν δ ὰ δυοῖν, comp. Juv. 6. 482, “Aut latum pictae vestis considerat aurum:” but ‘auri’ might refer equally well to golden ornaments.
 This line is wanting in all Ribbeck's MSS., and was doubtless introduced from 7. 784. It is only for the sake of convenience that I bracket rather than exclude it.
 The comParison, as Jahn and Wagn. remark, belongs to vv. 25, 26, the intermediate lines being quasi-parenthetical. The steady silent march of the army is compared to the rising of the Ganges, or the subsidence of the Nile. ‘Surgens’ can hardly refer to anything but the rising of the river, which is supposed to be slow and gradual. Whether Virg. had any authority for this notion of the periodical overflow of the Ganges, we do not know. He may have confused it with the Nile, as is further made probable by the number seven, which belongs to the Nile (see 6. 800), though Serv. refers for the seven branches of the Ganges to a passage of Mela, which is either misunderstood or non-existent. To take ‘surgens’ with recent commentators of the rise or source of the river would not agree well with ‘amnibus,’ and would have no point as a comParison. The alliteration, as well as the spondaic movement of the line, gives a notion of slowness and quiet.
 Per tacitum constructed with ‘surgens,’ i. q. “tacite,” as in Sil. 10. 353., 12. 554., 17. 215. cited by Forb., who also quotes Lucan 10. 251, “trahitur Gangesque Padusque Per tacitum mundi,” a further extension of the expression. ‘Pingui’ like “fimo pingui” G. 1. 80, “sero pingui” ib. 3. 406, rich and fertilizing. Virg. probably did not separate the two notions, and we need not do so.
 Globus is explained by ‘glomerari’ v. 33. It matters little whether ‘caligine’ be taken as an attrib. abl. with ‘globus’ or an abl. of circumstance with ‘volvitur.’ It is really a variety of “globus caliginis.”
 Ascendite Pal., Med., Gud., ‘et scandite’ Rom. and virtually fragm. Vat. Gud. as a variant has ‘et ascandite,’ and Med. has ‘scandite’ (without ‘et’) in marg. This last was the reading of many of the old editions, and was retained by Heyne, who thought the others metrical corrections. But the lengthening of a short syllable before ‘sc’ is unknown to Virg. Ribbeck, following Heins., thinks ‘et scandite’ may point to ‘ecscandite’ or ‘escendite.’ This is possible: but it seems on every ground safest to retain ‘ascendite.’ The line closely resembles 4. 594.
 Struere aciem i. q. “instruere:” see Dictt. Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘acies,’ which was the reading before Pier. ‘Credere campo’ like “te mecum crede solo” 11. 707, of trying a battle on level ground. Here however ‘credere’ is intrans.