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[530] The Trojan ‘turres’ had been mentioned above v. 46: one of them is now more particularly described. ‘Suspectu’ virtually height, as in 6. 579, the opposite of “despectus.” The use of ‘vasto’ here is an answer to Wagn.'s doctrine, mentioned on 5. 821, that the word conveys a notion of something dread-inspiring. The bridges seem to show that the tower did not stand on the “agger” but before it, communicating with it by their means. See on v. 170 above.

[532] “Summa nituntur opum vi” Enn. A. 4. fr. 5., 16. fr. 10, words borrowed by Virg., 12. 552.

[533] “Certant defendere saxis” 10. 130.

[534] Intorquere, at the foe. ‘Densi’ qualifies ‘intorquere,’ as if it had been “densa tela.

[535] Lampada 6. 587. Here it is doubtless a “malleolus” (8. 694 note), which would account for its sticking to the side of the tower so as to kindle it. ‘Princeps,’ as leader of his men: see on 10. 254.

[536] It would be too much to couple ‘plurima vento’ as i.q. “glomerata vento,” though Serv. so takes it: so we may say that ‘plurima’ qualifies ‘corripuit,’ ‘vento’ being constructed as in 1. 307, “vento accesserit oras.

[537] Postibus seems to be a loose synonyme for “trabibus.” Schrader ingeniously conj. ‘pontibus.’ Serv. says “non iam adesis, sed quos edit adhaerendo, i. e. haesitans adedit vel adesos reddidit.” Med. corrected has ‘adhaesis,’ and so perhaps Rom. ‘adhessis.’

[538] Malorum fugam like “fuga pericli” 8. 251.

[539] Retro residunt is not pleonastic; they retire from the burning part and settle down. Forb. quotes from Peerlkamp, “Recedentes simul cum turre residunt: melius quam quod Schrader. coni. ‘recedunt:quia omnes stant in una parte, turris inclinatur, et ipsi cum turre.

[540] Pestis of fire 5. 683.

[541] Subito might go with ‘pondere,’ as it was the sudden accession of weight that overthrew the tower: but it is simpler to take it as an adv. The tense in ‘procubuit’ gives a further notion of suddenness. “Caelum tonat omne tumultu” 12. 757.

[542] They fall against one part of the tower, that behind them, but that before them falls on them.

[543] In the fall they are pierced by their own weapons and by the broken wood.

[545] Cerda supposes Helenor and Lycus to be brothers, Helenor the elder, but illegitimate. But this is to mistake the meaning of ‘primaevus,’ and it is more natural to suppose that they are unconnected with each other.

[546] Maeonio regi, the king of Maeonia or Lydia. In Hom. the Maeonians are led by Mesthles and Antiphus, sons of Talaemenes by Limne, Il. 2. 864 foll. ‘Furtim’ merely signifies that the birth was illegitimate, like “furtivum” 7. 660, σκότιον δέ γείνατο μήτηρ Il. 6. 24.

[547] Sustulerat is constructed like “educet” 6. 765 note: perhaps it also includes the two notions of bearing and rearing, “tollere” being used in both senses (comp. v. 203 above, and see Forc.). ‘Vetitis’ has been variously explained: by Donatus, very improbably, because Troy was not fated to destruction; by Serv., because slaves were not allowed to serve in the Roman army; by Heyne, because Helenor was too young for service; by Peerlkamp, because Helenor's father forbade him to serve. This last view might be combined with Serv.'s, or we might say that his father forbade him to serve from fear that he would be killed: comp. Il. 2. 832, οὐδὲ οὓς παῖδας ἔασκεν Στείχειν ἐς πόλεμον φθισήνορα: τὼ δέ οἱ οὔτι Πειθέσθην. It is likely that Virg. should have copied Hom.; it is as likely that he should have alluded to a Roman custom; and there seem no further considerations to decide the judgment either way.

[548] Helenor is armed like a Roman “veles,” and hence called ‘levis.’ Gossrau comp. Livy 38. 21, “Hic (veles) miles tripedalem parmam habet et in dextra hastas, quibus eminus utitur: gladio Hispaniensi est cinctus. Quod si pede collato pugnandum est, translatis in laevam hastis, stringit gladium.” So when Camilla dismounts, 11. 711, she is “Ense pedes nudo puraque interrita parma.” The spears are not mentioned, doubtless having been laid aside. For the ‘parma,’ which was lighter than the “clipeus” or “scutum,” comp. Lersch § 31, who notes that it forms part of the “levia arma” (10. 800, 817) of Lausus, a young warrior like Helenor. The absence of any cognizance on the shield seems to be a mark of youth (comp. the case of Camilla) rather than of servile condition, as, if Serv.'s interpretation of ‘vetitis armis’ is well founded, Helenor as a slave should have had no arms at all, not the arms of a slave. ‘Inglorius’ seems to mean no more than undistinguished. In the case of Amphiaraus (Aesch. Theb. 588, Eur. Phoen. 1119), to which Heyne and others refer, the bearing of a shield without cognizance is noted as a special piece of modesty, as men generally have their shields emblazoned.

[549] As soon as he recovers his footing after the fall, he finds the enemy surrounding him.

[550] The repetition of ‘acies’ as well as ‘hinc’ represents his hopeless condition more forcibly. Comp. 11. 766, “hos aditus, iamque hos aditus.

[551] Heyne comp. Il. 12. 41 foll., 20. 164 foll.; but the resemblance is not particularly close. “Densa corona” 12. 744.

[552] For ‘furit’ Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘ruit.’ ‘Haud nescia’ like “iugulo haud inscius accipit ensem” 10. 907.

[553] The meaning is not that she leaps over the spears, but that she leaps above them and falls upon them.

[554] “Densos fertur moriturus in hostis” 2. 511.

[555] Densissima seems to be used rather of darts hurled in a shower than of spears bristling. Comp. “densa tela” 7. 673, “spicula densa” 12. 409. For the other view we might quote “densos acie atque horrentibus hastis” 10. 178.

[556] Pedibus melior like “lingua melior” 11. 338. The repetition ‘inter et hostis inter et arma’ gives a vivid picture of him threading his way among the enemy. So in Tibull. 2. 1. 67, comp. by Forb., “Ipse interque greges interque armenta Cupido Natus et indomitas dicitur inter equas,” the repetition impresses the notion of the connexion of Cupid with the country more strongly.

[558] Tecta used loosely for “moenia.” Two MSS. (none of Ribbeck's) have ‘saxa.’ ‘Socium’ 5. 174. He wished to be helped up the parapet. Rom. has ‘dextra.

[559] Turnus throws a dart after him and chases him also. “Teloque sequi (voluit) quem prendere cursu Non poterat” 12. 775: comp. ib. 354.

[560] ‘His’ vv. 198 above, 640 below.

[562] Pendentem, clinging to the wall. ‘Magna muri cum parte’ is from Il. 12. 398, where Sarpedon pulls away a battlement, δ᾽ ἕσπετο πᾶσα διαμπερές. Here it shows Turnus' strength and Lycus' convulsive energy.

[563] Virg. has combined and varied several similes in Hom., Il. 15. 690 foll. (an eagle pouncing on swans), ib. 17. 674 foll., 22. 308 foll. (an eagle carrying off a lamb or a hare). ‘Candenti corpore’ like “praestanti corpore” 1. 71.

[564] “Alta petens” 5. 508. The eagle flies up to his eyrie. “Pedibus Iovis armiger uncis” 5. 255.

[565] Rom., Gud. corrected, and another of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘matris.

[566] Martius, sacred to Mars, because the wolf suckled Mars' children, Romulus and Remus. “Martiales lupi” Hor. 1 Od. 17. 9. “Clamorem tollunt” 11. 622, of an engagement.

[567] Invadunt (Rutuli). Mr. Long seems to be right in taking ‘aggere’ of earth thrown in to fill up the ditch. He quotes Caesar B. G. 7. 85, “aggerab universis in munitionem coniectus ascensum dat Gallis,” ib. 2. 12 “aggere iacto.

[568] “Ignem ad fastigia iactant” 8. 491.

[569] See on 10. 698, where the line is nearly repeated. “Saxum, haud partem exiguam montis” 10. 127. Comp. G. 3. 239 note.

[570] “Auxilio subeuntem et tela ferentem” 2. 216. One of Ribbeck's cursives has ‘ignem.’ On ‘Lucetium’ Serv. says, “Solum hoc nomen est quod dictum a Vergilio in nullo alio reperitur auctore. Sane lingua Osca Lucetius est Iuppiter, dictus a luce quam praestare dicitur hominibus. Ipse est enim nostra lingua diespiter, i. e. diei pater.

[571] Liger 10. 576. ‘Asilas’ not the same as the one mentioned 10. 175, who is a leader of the Etruscan contingent. ‘Corynaeum:’ see on 6. 228.

[572] “Iaculo melior” 5. 68. The descriptive attributes indicate how the persons mentioned in v. 571 are killed. The first ‘hic’ is doubtless Liger, the second Asilas. “Insignis iaculo et longe fallente sagitta” 10. 754. Val. F. 3. 182 (comp. by Cerda) uses “fallere nervo” as a synonyme for shooting with an arrow.

[575] Sagarim 5. 263. “Pro turribus adstant” v. 677 below. Idas stands on the wall in a defensive attitude. So “pro portis” 12. 661, before the gates.

[576] Capys 1. 183. ‘Levis’ seems to qualify ‘strinxerat.

[577] He threw down his shield and put his hand to the wound. “Amissam laevam cum tegmineLucr. 3.649.

[578] Ergo, as if the coming of the arrow had been the consequence of his unguarded state, the real meaning being that it was that which made the arrow deadly. “Alis adlapsa sagitta” 12. 319.

[579] Adfixa Pal., Gud., ‘infixa’ Med., Rom., and two of Ribbeck's cursives. The former, which Heins. and Heyne restored, is certainly the more natural expression, and as the authority is sufficient, it seems best to recall it. Those who prefer ‘infixa’ must take it as a condensed expression for “infixa et adfixa lateri,” as there is no parallel between “sagitta infigit manum lateri” and “natis infigunt oscula matres,” which Wagn. quotes from Sil. 12. 738. The nom. is changed rather awkwardly, the subject of ‘rupit’ being ‘sagitta.’ ‘Abdita,’ ‘sagitta,’ not, as would be possible, ‘spiramenta.’ For ‘abditaque’ Med. originally had ‘atque addita.

[580] Spiramenta animae, the lungs. Taubm. comp. Eur. Hec. 567, τέμνει σιδήρῳ πνεύματος διαρ᾽ῥοάς, where however the windpipe is meant. “Tum latebras animae, pectus mucrone recludit” 10. 601. Two of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘rumpit,’ which was read by Heins. and Heyne.

[581] Stabat, probably on the wall: see on v. 589 below. “Stetit in armis” 12. 938. The son of Arcens is evidently one of Aeneas' Sicilian companions. The description of him, which is evidently introduced for the sake of variety, somewhat resembles that of Virbius 7. 761 foll.

[582] “Pictus acu tunicas” 11. 777. “Peregrina ferrugine clarus et ostro” 11. 772. “Ferrugine Hibera” Catull. 62 (64). 227. For ‘ferrugine’ see on G. 1. 467.

[583] Insignis facie v. 336 above, Serv. strangely separates ‘Arcens’ from ‘miserat,’ thinking that the name of the son ought to be mentioned as well as that of the father.

[584] Comp. 7. 763, 764, which these lines nearly repeat. ‘Matris’ Gud., ‘Martis’ Med., Pal., Rom., and one of Ribbeck's cursives. Mars is not known to have been connected with Sicily, and the grove of Mars at Colchis may have been thought of by transcribers. It is still open to question whether ‘Matris’ means Ceres, who was of course worshipped in Sicily, or some nymph who was mother of Arcens' son. Perhaps the latter is the more probable view. For the river Symaethus see Dict. G. The story of the Palici, who were Sicilian deities, was variously told: see Dict. M. They were mentioned in the Αἰτναῖαι, a lost tragedy of Aesch. A difficulty has been made about the sing., for which ‘Palicum’ and ‘Palicis’ have been proposed, while Wagn. at one time suggested that ‘Palici’ was nom. pl. in apposition to ‘ara:’ now he quotes Ov. 2 Ex Pont. 10. 25, “Hennaeosque lacus et olentia stagna Palici.

[586] For ‘hastis’ Rom., two of Ribbeck's cursives, and a variant in Gud. have ‘armis,’ which may have come from a recollection of such passages as 8. 482., 10. 52, 768, as Wagn. remarks. ‘Hastis’ may here be a dual, agreeably to the custom of carrying two spears (1. 313 &c.); but it may also be plural, comp. 10. 882 foll.

[587] Ter with ‘egit.’ Cerda refers to Veget. 2. 23, where it is enjoined that slingers should whirl the sling only once, the reason for which is, as he rightly says, not that the repetition of the movement would not give force to the sling, but that it would consume time, so that the slinger should learn to put as much force as possible into the single movement. ‘Adducta:’ as Mr. Long remarks, the sling is whirled round, and the centrifugal force would carry it away, if the centripetal, the string and the arm, did not draw it to the body. “Fundam tereti circum caput egit habena” 11. 579. ‘Ipse’ seems to mean with all his force. Mr. Long prefers to regard it as contrasted with ‘positis hastis.

[588] Media with ‘diffidit.’ The blow came right between the temples. “Mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem Dividit” v. 750 below. It was a common opinion that a leaden bullet melted in its passage through the air. Cerda comp. Aristot. De Caelo 2. 7, οἷον καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν φερομένων βελῶν: ταῦτα γὰρ αὐτὰ ἐκπυροῦται οὕτως ὥστε τήκεσθαι τὰς μολυβδίδας, Lucr. 6.177 foll., “omnia motu Percalefacta vides ardescere: plumbea vero Glans etiam longo cursu volvenda liquescit” (“quiescit” MSS., “calescit” Lachm.), Sen. N. Q. 2. 57, “Liquescit excussa glans funda, et attritu aeris velut igne destillat.

[589] “Fulva moribundum extendit arena” 5. 374. He falls, probably from the wall, upon the sandy plain below.

[590-620] ‘Numanus, brother-in-law of Turnus, reviles the Trojans, boastfully contrasting their effeminacy with the martial and manly training of the Rutulians.’

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