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[590] Bello is emphatic, as the next line shows. ‘Intendere,’ elsewhere applied to the bow, v. 665 below, 8. 704, is here used of the arrow. See on v. 623.

[591] Dicitur: the historic mode of expression is used to give pomp to the occasion. Comp. v. 79. ‘Fugacis’ contains an implied opposition to brave men.

[592] Manu with ‘fudisse.’ ‘Fundere’ of laying low 1. 193., 11. 665, where however ‘humi’ is added. “Ingrato Steropen quod fuderat arcu” Val. F. 1. 446. The name of this person seems to have been Numanus, his surname Remulus. Wagn., following a suggestion of Heyne's, thinks he may be called Numanus as king of Numana in the Picene territory. But it seems more probable that Virg. has given him a name which may suggest that he is the eponymous hero of the town, like Privernus above v. 576, though the assignment of two names to the same man is unusual, especially when one of them, Remulus, is found elsewhere in connexion with other persons, v. 360 above, 11. 636.

[593] “Cui nunc cognomen Iulo Additur” 1. 267. With the change of construction in the second relative clause comp. Hirt. Bell. Alex. 56, “ut quibus pecunias imperasset, neque contulissent se adirent,” quoted by Madv. Opusc. 2. p. 177.

[594] Nuper with ‘sociatus,’ not with ‘habebat.’ ‘Thalamo sociatus’ like “urbe, domo socias” 1. 600. ‘Germanam sociatus habebat’ a variety for “germanam sociatam habebat:” comp. 1. 314 &c. Turnus' elder sister was Iuturna.

[595] “Primam ante aciem” 7. 531, 673. ‘Digna atque indigna relatu,’ as Scaliger observes, has the air of a proverbial expression, like ῥητὰ καὶ ἀρ᾽ῥητά, “dicenda tacenda,” “fanda nefanda,” the notion being that he is talking idly and indiscriminately, so that we need not follow Heyne in marking off the worthy from the unworthy parts of his speech. So “digna indigna pati” 12. 811 = “quaecunque acciderint pati.” ‘Relatu,’ like ‘dicitur’ v. 591, indicates that the poet wishes to be thought to be writing history. But the word may refer to Numanus' own utterance.

[596] Novo regno, his alliance with royalty. His wife, as a princess, would be called “regina:” comp. 6. 28.

[597] Ingenti, the reading before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Ingentem se ferebat’ like “inmani corpore se ferebat” 5. 372, “magna se mole ferebat” 8. 199, “portis sese extulit ingens” 12. 441. At the same time, by adding ‘clamore,’ Virg. may have wished to indicate the other sense of ‘ferebat,’ “iactabat,” as Serv. understands it.

[598] So Hector to Polydamas, Il. 18. 287, οὔπω κεκόρησθε ἐελμένοι ἔνδοθι πύργων;Pudet’ might conceivably be a translation of κεκόρησθε: comp. E. 7. 44 note. “Obsidione tenentur” 10. 109. “Vallis obsessa tenetur” ib. 120.

[599] Bis capti, like “gentis bis victae” 11. 402, probably referring to the two captures of Troy by Hercules and by the Greeks, though Gossrau thinks the second conquest is by the Rutulians, which Numanus professes to regard as already complete. ‘Morti’ is the reading of all Ribbeck's MSS. (‘morte’ Med. a m. p., as also ‘protendere’) and of Serv., and is more forcible than ‘Marti,’ which Burm. and Heyne introduced from a few MSS. Serv. well comp. v. 143 above, “leti discrimina parva.

[600] Bello emphatic; the Trojans came wooing with the sword, and yet they dare not fight. ‘Nostra connubia,’ not an alliance with us, but brides belonging to us. One of Ribbeck's cursives originally had ‘poscant.

[601] Deus is coupled with ‘dementia,’ as above v. 185 “deus” is identified with “dira cupido,” the notion being that of a strong preternatural impulse. Or it is possible that Numanus may mean to intimate that the oracles which led the Trojans to Italy are merely a madman's delusion.

[602] As in vv. 148 foll. above, reproaches addressed to the Trojans are made to glance off on their Greek conquerors, who, it is intimated, are inferior to the Rutulians. With ‘fandi fictor’ Heyne comp. ἐπίκλοπος μύθων Il. 22. 281, the taunt of Hector to Achilles.

[603] Genus may be in apposition either to ‘nos’ implied in ‘deferimus,’ or to ‘natos.’ Perhaps the former is neater. ‘A stirpe’ with ‘durum.’ Heins. read ‘ab stirpe’ from only one MS. ‘Primum’ is explained by what follows, vv. 605, 607, 609 &c. The first step is to inure the infant to cold: then follow other stages of endurance.

[604] Pal., Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘duroque,’ as if ‘durumduramus’ were not enough already. ‘Gelu et undisἓν διὰ δυοῖν.

[605] Venatu invigilant like “victu invigilantG. 4. 158. ‘Silvasque fatigant’ like “mare terrasque caelumque fatigat” 1. 280, “noctemque diemque fatigant” 8. 94.

[606] Their ordinary pastime is breaking horses and shooting with the bow. ‘Spicula tendere’ like “intendisse sagittam” above v. 500. “Torquere cornu spicula” E. 10. 59.

[607] Repeated from G. 2. 472, with the substitution of ‘at’ for ‘et’ and ‘parvo’ for ‘exiguo.

[608] Rastris are probably specified as heavy, “iniquo pondere rastriG. 1. 164.

[609] Ferro teritur virtually = “ferro exercendo teritur.” ‘Teritur’ seems to combine the notions of spending and attrition. ‘The spear is never out of our hands; we turn it and use the other end as a goad.’ ‘Iuvencum’ for ‘iuvencorum’ is also found Stat. Theb. 4. 409, cited by Forc.

[610] Serv. mentions a variant ‘sera senectus,’ which is found in one MS. “Tarda gelu senectus” 8. 508.

[611] Mutat changes for the worse. So perhaps “viris alias” 5. 466.

[612, 613] Premimus expresses both the weight of the helmet and its power of confining the hair (4. 148., 5. 556). ‘Semperrapto’ seems to refer not to the old specially, but to the habits of the nation in general. The words are repeated from 7. 748, 749, with the change or ‘convectare’ into ‘comportare.’ ‘Convectare’ was the reading here before Heins., but is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Recentis praedas’ is less appropriate here, as in the mouth of Numanus it is a sort of boast of barbarism.

[614] For these reproaches, which really belong to the Phrygians of post-Homeric times, see on 4. 215, and comp. the whole passage. Heyne however remarks that Virg. had in his mind Priam's reproaches to his sons Il. 24. 261, ψεῦσταί τ᾽ ὀρχησταί τε, χοροιτυπίῃσιν ἄριστοι, as well as Alcinous' character of his nation Od. 8. 248, αἰεὶ δ᾽ ἡμῖν δαίς τε φίλη κίθαρίς τε χοροί τε, Εἵματά τ᾽ ἐξημοιβά, λοετρά τε θερμὰ καὶ εὐναί. The embroidered chlamys was a Phrygian dress (3. 484). Here the reference seems to be to “pallia” interwoven with purple or saffron, or both (see Dict. A. ‘Pailium’), though Heyne thinks that Virg. means garments of purple or saffron embroidered with something else (gold thread?). For saffron garments comp. 11. 775, and see Dict. A. ‘Crocota,’ where Appuleius (Met. 8. 11) is cited for their use by the priests of Cybele.

[615] Cordi 7. 326., 10. 252. No other authority is quoted for the pl. ‘desidiae,’ which doubtless follows the analogy of “munditiae,” “inimicitiae,” “irae.” The condemnation of dancing is in the spirit of Virg.'s own time. “Nemo fere saltat sobrius nisi forte insanit” Cic. pro Mur. 6.

[616] Tunics with sleeves, called χειριδωτοί (Dict. A. ‘Chiridota’), were thought effeminate by the old Romans: see Gell. 7. 12, Cic. 2 Cat. 10, referred to by Taubm. and Serv. For the ‘mitra’ comp. 4. 216. The reproach was really not that the mitre had strings, which were an ordinary part of it, but that the mitre was worn at all. “Qui longa domi redimicula sumunt Frontibus” Juv. 2. 84.

[617] πέπονες, κάκ᾽ ἐλέγχἐ, Ἀχαιίδες, οὐκέτ᾽ Ἀχαιοί Il. 2. 235. Here the reproach seems to be keener, as Serv. remarks: “ipsos vituperaverat Phryges: nunc ad maiorem iniuriam Phrygias, non Phryges dixit.

[618] Dindyma 10. 252. ‘Biforem:’ Serv. quotes a passage from Varro, “Tibia Phrygia dextra unum foramen habet, sinistra duo, quorum unum acutum sonum habet, alterum gravem” (comp. Dict. A. ‘Tibia’), so that the reference here would be to a flute with two stops. Heyne comp. Hor. A. P. 202, “Tibia non, ut nunc, orichalco vincta tubaeque Aemula, sed tenuis simplexque foramine pauco.” No earlier authority is quoted for ‘biforis’ in this or in its literal sense. Probably Virg. was thinking of the διθύραμβος, which was originally performed to the flute (Dict. A. ‘Chorus,’ ed. 1), whether the etymology be a correct one or no.

[619] “Tympana tenta tonant palmisLucr. 2.618, of the worshippers of Cybele. The ‘buxus’ is again the flute. “Prima terebrato per rara foramina buxo Ut daret effeci tibia longa sonos” Ov. F. 6. 697: comp. Id. M. 4. 30., 12. 158. “Idaeam vocitant MatremLucr. 2.611. ‘Vocat,’ to the revel on the mountain: comp. 4. 303. ‘Vocant,’ which Heins. restored and Heyne retained, is found in two of Ribbeck's cursives.

[620] For ‘sinere’ with acc., see on G. 4. 7. Here we shall best understand the construction by rendering it into Greek, ἐᾶτε ὅπλα ἀνδράσι. ‘Cedite ferro’ like “cedere bonis,” relinquish to others. With the general sense of this and the preceding lines comp. 11. 735 foll.

[621-663] ‘Ascanius invokes Jupiter, and shoots Remulus in the middle of his boasting. Apollo applauds the deed, but bids Ascanius rest content and not attempt more.’

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