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"I received you, Jugurtha, at a very early age, into my kingdom,1 at a time when you had lost your father, and were without prospects or resources, expecting that, in return for my kindness, I should not be less loved by you than by my own children, if I should have any. Nor have my anticipations deceived me; for, to say nothing of your other great and noble deeds, you have lately, on your return from Numantia, brought honor and glory both to me and my kingdom; by your bravery, you have rendered the Romans, from being previously our friends, more friendly to us than ever; the name of our family is revived in Spain; and, finally, what is most difficult among mankind, you have suppressed envy by preeminent merit.2

"And now, since nature is putting a period to my life, I exhort and conjure you, by this right hand, and by the fidelity which you owe to my kingdom,3 to regard these princes, who are your cousins by birth, and your brothers by my generosity, with sincere affection; and not to be more anxious to attach to yourself strangers, than to retain the love of those connected with you by blood. It is not armies, or treasures,4 that form the defenses of a kingdom, but friends, whom you can neither command by force nor purchase with gold; for they are acquired only by good offices and integrity. And who can be a greater friend than one brother to another?5 Or what stranger will you find faithful, if you are at enmity with your own family? I leave you a kingdom, which will be strong if you act honorably, but weak, if you are ill-affected to each other; for by concord even small states are increased, but by discord, even the greatest fall to nothing.

"But on you, Jugurtha, who are superior in age and wisdom, it is incumbent, more than on your brothers, to be cautions that nothing of a contrary tendency may arise; for, in all disputes, he that is the stronger, even though he receive the injury, appears, because his power is greater, to have inflicted it. And do you, Adherbal and Hiempsal, respect and regard a kinsman of such a character; imitate his virtues, and make it your endeavor to show that I have not adopted a better son6 than those whom I have begotten."

1 X. I received you--into my kingdom] “In meuum regnum accepi.” By these words it is only signified that Micipsa received Jugurtha into his palace so as to bring him up with his own children. The critics who suppose that there is any allusion to the adoption, or a pretended intention of it on the part of Micipsa, are evidently in the wrong.

2 Pre-eminent merit] “Gloriâ.” Our English word glory is too strong.

3 By the fidelity which you owe to my kingdom] “Per regni fidem.” This seems to be the best of all the explanations that have been offered of these words. “"Per fidem quam tu rex (futurus) mihi regi præstare debes."” Burnouf."Per fidem quæ decet in regno, i.e. regem."Dietsch. “"Per eam fidem, quâ esse decet eum qui regnum obtinet."” Kritzius.

4 It is not armies, or treasures, etc.] ᾿Ου τόδε τὸ χρυσοῦν σκῆπτρον τὸ τὴν βασιλείαν διασῶζόν ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ οἱ πολλοὶ φίλοι σκῆπτρον βασιλεῦσιν ἀληθέστατον καὶ ἀσφαλέστατον. "It is not this golden scepter that can preserve a kingdom; but numerous friends are to princes their trust and safest scepter." Xen. Cyrop, viii. 7, 14.

5 And who can be a greater friend than one brother to another?] “Quis autem amicior, quam frater fratri?” “"Νόμιζ᾽ ἀδελφοὺς τοὺς ἀληθινοὺς φίλους. Menander."” Wasse.

6 That I have not adopted a better son, &c.] “Ne ego meliores liberos sumsisse videar quàm genuisse.” As there is no allusion to Micipsa's adoption of any other son than Jugurtha, Sallust's expression liberos sumsisse can hardly be defended. It is necessary to give son in the singular, in the translation.

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