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CAPUT QUINTUM.

Bostomâ relictâ, Novum Eboracum contendit Washingtonius. — Dux Howe Insulam Staten capit. — Curatores, à rege Britanno ad pacem concordiamque restituendam constituti, colloquium frustra tentant. — Milites suos jussis generalibus affatur Washingtonius. — Colonias fœderatas, liberas, supremas, suisque viribus innitentes esse decernit Congressus. — In insulâ Longâ prœlium adversum.


FUTURUM bellum in Novo Eboraco, provinciâ propè centrali, feliciùs geri, exercitus cibariorum genere omni ex insulis vicinis commodiùs instrui, et classe Anglicâ faciliès defendi, potuit. Ob eas causas, Bostoniam vacuefacere, copiasque omnes Novi Eboraci cogere, jamdudùm in Senatu Anglico statutum fuerat. Causæ eædem, quæ Britannos Novi Eboraci potiri induxerunt, Washingtonium quoque ad eos præoccupandos1 impediendosque impulerunt; magnum, itaque, militum numerum Bostoniâ dimisit, imperioque duci Lee dato, mumitaque Bostoniâ, cum exercitu reliquo Novum Eboracum tendit, omniaque, quæ ad defensionem pertinerent, sedulò paravit. Tempus satis diuturnum huic negotio conficiendo concessum;2 namque Dux Howe, quem Novum Eboracum tendere rectâ oportebat, cum copiis præsidio Bostoniæ subductis Halifax petivit. Illic auxilia ab Angliâ expectata opperiebatur; at tandem, moræ impatiens, sine auxiliis Eboracum Novum solvit, subque Junii finem insulam Staten cepit. Frater ejus, classis præfectus, cum copiis navalibus auxiliisque pedestribus ad oras Neo-Eboracenses paulo post naves appulit:3 fratramque duorum copiis conjunctis, ad bellum redintegrandum parata omnia videbantur.

Ante belli initium, Anglicani exercitûs dux, ejusque frater, qui classi præerat, curatores4 a rege Britanno, ad pacem concordiamque Angliam inter et colonias restituendam, constituti, colloquia de pace transigendâ habere decernunt. In hujus negotii inceptionem, literas adGeorgium Washingtoniummiserunt, quas accipere renuit, quòd, titulo, ordini debito, inscriptio carebat: simulque, de re, ad Congressum scripsit, “ Se nunquam necessariis supervacanea prætulisse, at, hâc in re, hono- the departure of the British for Halifax. — The gerundive adjective conficiendo, in the above sentence, is dependant on concessum; it might be expressed otherwise, thus, ad hoc negotium conficiendum; hujus negotii conficiendi, or hoc negotium conficiendi; in which two last cases, conficiendi is governed by the noun tempus. rem, muneri publico5 debitum, quem aliàs sibi privato haudquaquam arrogaret, pervicaciùs postulare, æquum esse arbitrabatur. ” Alteris denuò literis, eâdem de re, ad Washingtonium missis, colloquium perlongum eum inter et Patersonium, præfecti apud exercitum Anglicum tunc temporis vice fungentem, habitum, in quo Patersonius, “ curatores de pace transigenda auctoritate magna donatos esse dixit; ” cui responsum fuit, “ eorum auctoritatem ad colonis ignoscendum, veniamque dandam, tantummodò pertinere, eosque, qui nullius sibi delicti unquam conscii fuerant, ignosci et condonari nolle. ” His dictis, colloquium abruptum.

Sub Ducis Howe ad insulam Staten adventum, exercitus Americanus ex decem hominum millibus constabat, et, supplementis variis quotidie adventantibus, ante Sextilis6 finem, ad viginti septem hominum millia perbrevi accrevit; quorum pars magna militia7 fuit, totiusque exercitûs pars quarta ægrotabat: morbi, quibus milites novitii præcipuè obnoxii sunt, latè horrificèque ingruebant, et, tabernaculis deficientibus, ingravescebat in dies malum. copiæ tam sagacitèr solertèrque diversis locis insulisque disponebantur, ut hostes, quemnam locum insulamve potissimùm adorirentur, ubinamve belli inferendi initium fieret, diù ambigebant.

Washingtonius nil, quod milites ad hostes lacessendos impetumque Anglorum fortitèr sustinendum alacres paratosque redderet, prætermisit; rationemque8 omnem animos patriæ amore incendendi, irasque in hostes suscitandas, expertus est, jussis generalibus9 sic eos affatus: “ Tempus instat, quod, liberi an servi futuri sint Americani; utrumnè quidquam, quod proprium dici possit, habituri; an domus agrosque hostes impunè invasuri et direpturi; perbrevi dijudicabit. Infinitæ multitudinis nondum natæ, ex hujusce exercitus virtute,10 fatum pendebit. Hostes immites et inexorabiles nobis præter fortis renixûs, aut servitii turpissimi, optionem, nil reliqui fecêre. Vincere, igitur, aut pulchra petere per vulnera mortem, nobis hodierno die statuendum est. Officium11 quod nobismetipsis, quod patriæ debemus, omnes vires, summamque virtutem postulat. Quòd si nobis fortuna inviderit, aut nos fortitudo defecerit, stigmosi turpissimique apud homines omnes erimus. Justitiâ, igítur, causæ, auxilioque divino freti, ad facinora magna et præclara nosmet accingamus. Popularium omnium ob oculos nunc versamur, quorum præconium laudesque feremus, si fortè tyrannidi, ab hostibus intentatæ,12 eos eripiamus: hortemur, igitur, cives, animosque13 mutuos nobis invicem addamus, et gentibus omnibus salutare documentum, virum liberum, solo natali pro libertate certantem, quovis servo conductitio aut latrone14 meliorem et superiorem esse, præbeamus. ”

Congressûs constantia civium animos ardore repleverat: Senatus ille audax, mensis Quintilis15 die quarto, anno millesimo septingentesimo septuagesimo sexto ab Christo nato, colonias fœderatas Americanas, LIBERAS, SUPREMAS, SUISQUE VIRIBUS INNITENTES ESSE decrevit. — Duces Anglici Insulam Longam16 oppugnare constituunt: quamobrem, Augusti die vigesimo secundo, anno suprà dicto, copias omnes exposuerunt:17 ejusdemque mensis die vigesimo septimo, primâ luce, prælium, ab Hessianis, copiis Germanicis conductitiis, commissum; tandem, cum diù acriturque pugnatum, Britanni victores discessêre. Americanorum tria millia eo prælio desiderata;18 quorum duo millia cæsa, pars autem reliqua capta. Ex parte Anglicâ, trecenti ferè interiêre.

1 Prœoccupandos, “ to prevent, ” anticipate, or forestall them.

2 Concessum, “ was granted, ” or allowed to the Americans by

3 Naves appulit, “ landed; ” literally, he drove to (land) the ships.

4 Curatores; by this may here be understood “ commissioners, ” for, the noun curator, signifies any person to whom the care or charge of transacting any business is committed; being derived from cura, “ concern, ” “ care, ” ” charge. ”

5 Muneri publico, “ to a public office, ” or “ employment. ”

6 Sextilis, “ the month of August, ” so called from the numeral adjective sextus, the sixth, being the sixth from March; it was afterwards called flugustus, from the Emperor of that name.

7 Militia. This is here taken for what we understand by the term “ militia ” in English; derived from miles, ” a soldier. ”

8 Rationem, “ method, ” or “ plan. ” It was an universal custom, both in ancient and modern times, on the eve of an expected engagement, for commanders to address and harangue their troops, in order to spur them on to deeds of valor.

9 Jussis generalibus, “ in general orders. ” These words, although good Latin, sound rather strangely to a classic ear, in consequence of the infrequency, or, rather, total absence, of such an idea among the ancients.

10 Virtute, “ courage, ” valor, or military prowess; rarely to be taken in a moral sense, in this work.

11 Officium, “ a moral duty. ”

12 Intentatæ, “ threatened. ”

13 Animos, “ courage, ” spirits, animation.

14 Latrone, “ a hired soldier, ” or “ mercenary, ” which is the original and proper meaning of latro; it afterwards came to imply a robber, cut-throat, &c.

15 Quintilis, “ of July, ” so called from the numeral adjective quintus, the fifth, reckoning from March: it was afterwards called Julius, from Julius Cæsar.

16 Insulam Longam,Long Island, ” separated from New-York by the East River.

17 Exposuerunt, “ they landed; ” de navibus understood.

18 Desiderata, “ were missing, ” wanting, or lost.

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