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On the other hand, there are some substances which, tasted in small quantities only, appease hunger and thirst, and keep up the strength, such as butter, for instance, cheese made of mares' milk, and liquorice. But the most pernicious thing of all, and in every station of life, is excess, and more especially excess in food; in fact, it is the most prudent plan to retrench everything that may be possibly productive of injury. Let us, however, now pass on to the other branches of Nature.

SUMMARY.—Remarkable facts, narratives, and observations, two thousand, two hundred, and seventy.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—M. Varro,1 Hyginus,2 Scrofa,3 Saserna,4 Celsus Cornelius,5 Æmilius Macer,6 Virgil,7 Columella,8 Julius Aquila9 who wrote on the Tuscan art of Divination, Tarquitius10 who wrote on the same subject, Umbricius Melior11 who wrote on the same subject, Cato the Censor,12 Domitius Calvinus,13 Trogus,14 Melissus,15 Fabianus,16 Mucianus,17 Nigidius,18 Manilius,19 Oppius.20

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Aristotle,21 Democritus,22 Neop- tolemus23 who wrote the Meliturgica, Aristomachus24 who wrote on the same subject, Philistus25 who wrote on the same subject, Nicander,26 Menecrates,27 Dionysius28 who translated Mago, Empedocles,29 Callimachus,30 King Attalus,31 Apollodorus32 who wrote on venomous animals, Hippocrates,33 Herophilus,34 Erasistratus,35 Asclepiades,36 Themison,37 Posidonius38 the Stoic, Menander39 of Priene and Menander40 of Heraclea, Euphronius41 of Athens, Theophrastus,42 Hesiod,43 King Philometor.44

1 See end of B. ii.

2 See end of B. iii.

3 C. Tremellius Scrofa, a friend of M. Varro, and one of the early writers on agriculture.

4 See end of B. x.

5 See end of B. vii.

6 See end of B. ix.

7 See end of B. vii.

8 See end of B. viii.

9 See end of B. ii.

10 See end of B. ii.

11 See end of B. x.

12 See end of B. iii.

13 Nothing seems to be known of this writer.

14 See end of B. vii.

15 See end of B. vii.

16 See end of B. ii.

17 See end of B. ii.

18 See end of B. vi.

19 See end of B. x.

20 C. Oppius, one of the most intimate friends of Julius Cæsar, for whom, with Balbus, he acted in Spain. Of his numerous biographical and historical works, none have survived to our time.

21 See end of B. ii.

22 See end of B. ii.

23 Probably Neoptolemus of Paros, who wrote a book of Epigrams, a treatise on Languages, and other works.

24 Of Soli, an observer of the habits of bees. His portrait is said still to exist, on a cornelian, attentively observing a swarm of bees. He wrote upon bees, honey, and the art of mixing wines.

25 Probably a different writer from the one mentioned at the end of B. viii.; nothing seems to be known of him.

26 See end of B. viii.

27 See end of B. viii.

28 See end of B. x.

29 A philosopher of Agrigentum, and disciple of Pythagoras. He is said to have perished in the crater of Mount Etna. He wrote numerous works, of which only some fragments exist.

30 See end of B. iv.

31 Apparently the same as the King Philometor, mentioned below.—See end of B. viii.

32 Of this writer nothing seems to be known.

33 See end of B. vii.

34 Of Chalcedon, one of the most famous physicians of antiquity. He was physician to Phalaris, the tyrant of Sicily, and is said to have dissected criminals alive. He was the first that paid particular attention to the nervous system.

35 A native of Iulis, in Cos, or else Ceos, grandson of Aristotle, and disciple of Theophrastus. He acquired great reputation as a physician, at the court of Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, where he discovered the supposed disease of Prince Antiochus, who had fallen in love with his stepmother, Stratonice. Of his numerous medical works, only the titles and a few fragments exist.

36 See end of B. vii.

37 A physician of Laodicæa, founder of the school of the Methodici. He was a pupil of Asclepiades, and died about B.C. 43. Of his medical works only a few fragments survive.

38 See end of B. ii.

39 See end of B. viii.

40 See end of B. viii.

41 See end of B. viii.

42 See end of B. iii.

43 See end of B. vii.

44 See King Attalus, above.

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