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Man only, and the swine, are subject to swellings in the throat which are mostly caused by the noxious quality of the water1 which they drink. The upper part of the gullet is called the fauces, the lower the stomach.2 By this name is understood a fleshy concavity, situate behind the tracheal artery, and joining the vertebral column; it extends in length and breadth like a sort of chasm.3 Those animals which have no gullet have no stomach either, nor yet any neck or throat, fishes, for example; and in all these the mouth communicates immediately with the belly. The sea-tortoise4 has neither tongue nor teeth; it can break anything, however, with the sharp edge of its muzzle. After the tracheal artery there is the œsophagus, which is indented with hard asperities resembling bramble-thorns, for the purpose of levigating the food, the incisions5 gradually becoming smaller as they approach the belly. The roughness at the very extremity of this organ strongly resembles that of a blacksmith's file

1 Snow-water, we know, is apt to produce goitre.

2 "Stomachus." More properly, the œsophagus, or ventricle.

3 Lacunæ modo.

4 Or turtle. It has a tongue, and though it has no teeth, the jaws are edged with a horny substance like the bills of birds.

5 "Crenis" is read for " renis:" otherwise the passage is unintelligible; it is still most probably in a corrupt state.

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load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
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