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1 The perfumes of Delos themselves had nothing in particular to recommend them; but as it was the centre of the worship of Apollo, it is not improbable that exquisite perfumes formed a large proportion of the offerings brought thither from all parts of the world.
2 In Egypt. See B. v. c. 11. The unguents of Mendes are again mentioned in the present Chapter.
3 Or flower-de-luce. This perfume was called Irinum. The Iris Florentina of the botanists, Fée says, has the smell of the violet. For the composition of this perfume, see Dioscorides, B. i.. c. 67.
5 See B. v. c. 26.
6 Crocinum; made from the Crocus sativus of naturalists.
7 See B. xii. c. 62. It was made from the flowers of the vine, mixed with omphacium.
8 Amaracinum. The amaracus is supposed to have been the Origanum majoranoides of the moderns. Dioscorides, B. i. c. 59, says that the best was made at Cyzicus.
9 Melinum. See B. xxiii. c. 54.
10 Cyprinum. See B. xii. c. 51. The cyprus was the modern Lawsonia inermis.
11 Made from the oil of bitter almonds. See B. xv. c. 7.
12 Or "all Athenian." We find in Athenæus, B. xv. c. 15, the composition of this unguent.
13 From what is said by Apollonius in the passage of Athenæus last quoted, it has been thought that this was the same as the unguent called nardinum. It is very doubtful, however.
14 Narcissinum. See B. xxi. c. 75. Dioscorides gives the composition of this unguent, B. i. c. 54.
15 Among the stymmata, Dioscorides ranges the sweet-rush, the sweet- scented calamus and xylo-balsamum; and among the hedysmata amomum, nard, myrrh, balsam, costus, and marjoram. The latter constituted the base of unguents, the former were only added occasionally.
16 Cinnabar is never used to colour cosmetics at the present day, from its tendency to excoriate the skin. See B. xxiii. c. 39.
17 This is still used for colouring cosmetics at the present day. See B. xxii, c. 23.
18 Fée remarks, that salt can be of no use; but by falling to the bottom without dissolving, would rather tend to spoil the unguent.
19 See B. xii. c. 60. The name "bryon" seems also to have been extended to the buds of various trees of the Conifera class and of the white poplar. It is probably to the buds of the last tree that Pliny here alludes.
20 Oil of ben. See B. xii. c. 48.
21 Or metopium. See Note 18 above.
22 Made from olives. See B. xii. c. 60.
23 See B. xii. c. 29.
24 The modern Andropogon schœnanthus. See B. xii. c. 48.
25 See B. xii. c. 48.
26 Carpobalsamum. See. B. xii, c. 54.
27 See B. xii. c. 56.
28 Fluid resin of coniferous trees of Europe.
29 See B. xv. c. 35.
30 Cupressus semper-virens. He does not say what part of the tree was employed.
31 See B. xii. c. 36.
32 See c. 34 of the present Book.
33 The alkanet and cinnabar were only used for colouring.
34 "Sampsuchinum." It is generally supposed that the sampsuchum, and the amaracus were the same, the sweet marjoram, or Origanum marjorana of Linnæus. Fée, however, is of a contrary opinion, See B. xxi. c. 35. In Dioscorides, B. i. c. 59, there is a difference made between sampsuchinum and amaracinum, though but a very slight one.
35 The bark of the Cassia lignea of the pharmacopœa, the Laurus cassia of botany. See B. xii. c. 43.
36 See B. xii. c. 26. The Andropogon nardus of Linnæus.
37 See B. xii. c. 41.
38 See B. xxiii. c. 64, also B. xv. c. 10. The Malun struthium, or "sparrow quince," was an oblong variety of the fruit.
39 Sesamum orientale of Linnæus. See B. xviii. c. 22, and B. xxii. c. 54.
40 Balm of Gilead. See B. xii. c. 54.
41 Southernwood. The Artemisia abrotonum of Linnæus.
42 Or lily unguent, made of the lily of Susa, which had probably a more powerful smell than that of Europe. Dioscorides gives its composition, B. i. c. 63.
43 The Crocus sativus of Linnæus.
44 Cyprinum. It has been previously mentioned in this Chapter.
45 See B. xii. c. 52.
46 The gum resin of the Pastinaca opopanax of Linnæus. See B. xii. c. 57.
48 See B. ii. c. 26, and B. xxi. c. 68–70.
49 The Trifolium melilotus of Linnæus. See B. xxi. c. 30.
50 See B. xii. c. 53.
52 See B. xii. c. 5.
53 Fée does not appear to credit this statement. By the use of the word "ventiletur" "fanned" may be possibly implied.
54 See B. xii. c. 59.
55 The Agnus castus of Linnæus. See B. xxiv. c. 38. The leaves are quite inodorous, though the fruit of this plant is slightly aromatic.
56 "Externa." The reading is doubtful, and it is difficult to say what is the exact meaning of the word.
58 Or leaf unguent, so called from being made of leaves of nard. See B. xii. c. 27.
59 See B. xii. c. 25.
60 See B. xii. c. 28.
61 See B. xii. c. 26, 27, where the list is given.
62 See B. xii. c. 35.
63 Susinum. See p. 163.
64 Summa auctoritas rei.
66 See B. xii. c. 46.
67 See B. xii. c. 53.
68 See B. xii. c. 55.
69 See B. xii. c. 37.
70 See B. xii. c. 48.
71 See B. xii. c. 48.
72 See B. xii. c. 45.
73 Fée suggests that this may be the Nymphæa cœrulea of Savigny, a plant that is common in the Nile, and the flowers of which exhale a sweet odour.
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