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1 The Acacia Nilotica of Linnæus, from which we derive the gum Arabic of commerce; and of which a considerable portion is still derived from Egypt.
2 These gums are chemically different from gum Arabic, and they are used for different purposes in the arts.
3 The vine does not produce a gum; but when the sap ascends, a juice is secreted, which sometimes becomes solid on the evaporation of the aqueous particles. This substance contains acetate of potassa, which, by the decomposition of that salt, becomes a carbonate of the same base.
4 This is not a gum, but a resinous product of a peculiar nature. It is known to the moderns by the name of "olivine."
5 The sap of the eim leaves a saline deposit on the bark, principally formed of carbonate of potassa. Fée is at a loss to know whether Pliny here alludes to this or to the manna which is incidentally formed by certain insects on some trees and reeds. But, as he justly says, would Pliny say of the latter that it is "ad nihil utile"—"good for nothing"?
6 A resinous product, no doubt. The frankincense of Africa has been attributed by some to the Juniperus Lycia and Phoenicia.
7 The Penæa Sarcocolla of Linnæus. The gum resin of this tree is still brought from Abyssinia, but it is not used in medicine. This account is from is Dioscorides, B. iii. c. 99. The name is from the Greek σαρξ, "flesh," and κόλλα, "glue."
8 See B. xxiv. c. 7.
9 Three denarii per pound.
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