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The bark also of the beech, the lime, the fir, and the pitch-tree is extensively used by the peasantry. Panniers and baskets are made of it, as also the large flat hampers which are employed for the carriage of corn and grapes: roofs of cottages,1 too, are made of this material. When a spy has been sent out he often leaves information for his general, written upon fresh bark, by cutting letters in the parts of it that are the most juicy. The bark of the beech is also employed for religious purposes in certain sacred rites.2 This tree, however, when deprived of its bark, will not survive.

1 This is still the case in some of the poorer provinces of Spain.

2 As Fée remarks, Mars is no longer the Divinity in honour of whom characters are traced on the bark of trees.

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