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Midway between the preceding ones and the fruit-trees stands the elm, partaking of the nature of the former in its wood, and being akin to the latter in the friendship which it manifests for the vine.1 The Greeks distinguish two varieties of this tree: the mountain2 elm, which is the larger of the two, and that of the plains, which is more shrubby. Italy gives the name of "Atinia"3 to the more lofty kinds, and gives the preference to those which are of a dry nature and will not grow in damp localities. Another variety is the Gallic elm,4 and a third, the Italian,5 with leaves lying closer together, and springing in greater numbers from a single stalk. A fourth kind is the wild elm. The Atinia does not produce any samara,6 that being the name given to the seed of the elm. All the elms will grow from slips or cuttings, and all of them, with the exception of the Atinia, may be propagated from seed.

1 Although (in common, too, with other trees) it is used as a support for the vine, that does not any the more make it of the same nature as the fruit-trees.

2 The Ulmus effuse of Willdenow; the Ulmus montana of Smith: Flor. Brit.

3 The Ulmus campestris of Linnæus; the Ulmus marita of other betanists.

4 The ordinary elm, Fée thinks.

5 A variety of the Ulmus campestris, probably.

6 This name is still preserved by botanists. Pliny is incorrect in saying that the large elm produces no seed, the only difference being that the seed is smaller than in the other kinds. Columella, B. v. c. 6, contradicts the statement here made by Pliny, but says that it appears to be sterile, in comparison with the others.

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