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1 "Siligo." There are numerous contradictions in Pliny with reference to this plant, but it is now pretty generally agreed that it is the Triticum hibernum of Linnæus: the "froment tousselle" of the French. It was formerly the more general opinion that it was identical with spelt; but that cannot be the case, as spelt is red, and siligo is described as white.
2 "Sine virtute" It is doubtful what is the meaning of this.
3 Sine pondere.
4 In other places he says, most unaccountably, that wheat "degenerates into siligo."
5 As to this practice, see c. 29.
6 "Quam vocant castratam."
7 From this account, it would appear that there were twenty-four sextarii to the modius; but the account in general is very contradictory.
8 Salt water is rarely used for this purpose in modern times. See this passage discussed in Beckmann on Inventions, Bohn's Ed. vol. i. p.
9 "Artopticio." See c. 27 of this Book.
10 Without tin, probably; or the tin bread may have been baked before the fire, similar to the method adopted at the present day with the American ovens.
11 "Similago." Founders still use meal occasionally for making moulds; it is also employed in making paper.
12 The mention of "hundreds" here is evidently faulty, unless the other part of the passage is corrupt. Fée suggests twenty-two and twenty seven.
13 The mention of "hundreds" here is evidently faulty, unless the other part of the passage is corrupt. Fée suggests twenty-two and twenty seven.
14 the mention of "hundreds" here is evidently faulty, unless the other part of passage is corrupt. Fée suggests twenty-two and twenty-seven
15 But above we find him stating that "secundarius," "seconds" flour, and "cibarius," or "coarse," meal, are the same thing. His contradictions cannot apparently be reconciled.
16 The whole of this passage, as Brotier remarks, is evidently corrupt.
17 Fée has no doubt that this was siligo, or winter-wheat, in a very high state of cultivation.
18 Il. v. 1. 195.
19 There are still some varieties both of winter-wheat and spelt that have the beard.
20 It is generally thought that this is the oat, the Avena sativa of Linnæus, while some have suggested rice. Fée thinks that by the name, some exotic gramineous plant is meant.
21 Probably a variety of spelt, as Sprengel conjectures, from Galen and other writers. See c. 16 of this Book.
22 Fée thinks that it is the grain of the Festuca fluitans of Linnæus that is here alluded to, and identifies it with the "ulva palustris" of Virgil, Geor. iii. 174.
23 The Latin word "degener" cannot here mean "degenerate," in our sense of the word, but must merely imply a change of nature in the plant.
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