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Ploughs are of various kinds. The coulter1 is the iron part that cuts up the dense earth before it is broken into pieces, and traces beforehand by its incisions the future furrows, which the share, reversed,2 is to open out with its teeth. Another kind—the common plough-share—is nothing more than a lever, furnished with a pointed beak; while another variety, which is only used in light, easy soils, does not present an edge projecting from the share-beam throughout, but only a small point at the extremity. In a fourth kind again, this point is larger and formed with a cutting edge; by the agency of which implement, it both cleaves the ground, and, with the sharp edges at the sides, cuts up the weeds by the roots. There has been invented, at a comparatively recent period, in that part of Gaul3 known as Rhætia, a plough with the addition of two small wheels, and known by the name of "plaumorati."4 The extremity of the share in this has the form of a spade: it is only used, however, for sowing in cultivated lands, and upon soils which are nearly fallow. The broader the plough-share, the better it is for turning up the clods of earth. Immediately after ploughing, the seed is put into the ground, and then harrows5 with long teeth are drawn over it. Lands which have been sown in this way require no hoeing, but two or three pairs of oxen are employed in ploughing. It is a fair estimate to consider that a single yoke of oxen can work forty jugera of land in the year, where the soil is light, and thirty where it is stubborn.

1 Fée remarks, that the plough here described differs but little from that used in some provinces of France.

2 Resupinus.

3 Gallia Togata. Rhætia is the modern country of the Grisons.

4 According to Goropius Becanus, from plograt, the ancient Gallic for a plough-wheel. Hardouin thinks that it is from the Latin "plaustra rati;" and Poinsinet derives it from the Belgic ploum, a plough, and rat, or radt, a wheel.

5 "Crates;" probably made of hurdles; see Virgil, Georg. i. 95.

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