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At our repasts, too, and upon our tables, when we see the vessels sweat in which the viands are served, and leave marks upon the side-board,1 it is an indication that a dreadful storm is impending.

SUMMARY.—Remarkable facts, narratives, and observations, two thousand and sixty.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Massurius Sabinus,2 Cassius Hemina,3 Verrius Flaccus,4 L. Piso,5 Cornelius Celsus,6 Turranius Gracilis,7 D. Silanus,8 M. Varro,9 Cato the Censor,10 Scrofa,11 the Sasernœ,12 father and son, Domitius Calvinus,13 Hyginus,14 Virgil,15 Trogus,16 Ovid,17 Græcinus,18 Columella,19 Tubero,20 L. Tarutius,21 who wrote in Greek on the Stars, Cæsar22 the Dictator, who wrote upon the Stars, Sergins Paulus,23 Sabinus Fabianus,24 M. Cicero,25 Calpurnius Bassus,26 Ateius Capito,27 Mamilius Sura,28 Attius,29 who wrote the Praxidica.

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Hesiod,30 Theophrastus,31 Aristotle,32 Democritus,33 King Hiero,34 King Attalus Philometor,35 King Archelaüs,36 Archytas,37 Xenophon,38 Amphilochus39 of Athens, Anaxipolis40 of Thasos, Aristophanes41 of Miletus, Apollodorus42 of Lemnos, Antigonus43 of Cymæ, Agathocles44 of Chios, Apollonius45 of Pergamus, Aristander46 of Athens, Bacchius47 of Miletus, Bion48 of Soli, Chæreas49 of Athens, Chæristus50 of Athens, Diodorus51 of Priene, Dion52 of Colophon, Epigenes53 of Rhodes, Euagon54 of Thasos, Euphronius55 of Athens, Androtion56 who wrote on Agriculture, Æschrion57 who wrote on Agriculture, Lysimachus58 who wrote on Agriculture, Dionysius59 who translated Mago, Diophanes60 who made an Epitome from Dionysius, Thales,61 Eudoxus,62 Philippus,63 Calippus,64 Dositheus,65 Parmeniscus,66 Meton,67 Criton,68 Œnopides,69 Zenon,70 Euctemon,71 Harpalus,72 Hecatæus,73 Anaximander,74 Sosigenes,75 Hipparchus,76 Aratus,77 Zoroaster,78 Archibius.79

1 "Repositoriis." See B. xix. c. 13, and B. xxx. c. 49.

2 See end of B. vii.

3 See end of B. xii.

4 See end of B. iii.

5 See end of B. ii.

6 See end of B. vii.

7 See end of B. iii.

8 See end of B. xiv.

9 See end of B. ii.

10 See end of B. iii.

11 See end of B. xi.

12 See end of B. x.

13 See end of B. xi.

14 See end of B. iii.

15 See end of B. vii.

16 See end of B. vii.

17 A native of Sulmo, in the country of the Peligni, and one of the greatest poets of the Augustan age. It is most probable that his "Fasti" was extensively consulted by Pliny in the compilation of the present Book. Six Books of the Fasti have come down to us, but the remaininig six have perished, if, indeed, they were ever written, which has been doutbted by many of the learned.

18 See end of B. xiv.

19 See end of B. viii.

20 See end of B. ii. It is supposed that there were several writers of this name, but it is impossible to say with certainty which of them is the one here referred to. It is probable, however, that it is either L. Ælius Tubero, the friend of Cicero, or else Q. Ælius Tubero, his son, that is alluded to.

21 L. Tarutius Firmianus, a mathematician and astronomer, and a friend and contemporary of Cicero and M. Varro. At the request of the latter, he took the horoscope of Romulus. It is generally supposed that he was of Etrusean descent.

22 The founder of the imperial dignity at Rome. His Commentaries are the only work written by him that has come down to us. His treatise on the Stars, which Pliny frequently quotes throughout this Book, was probably written under the inspection of the astronomer, Sosigenes.

23 See end of B. ii.

24 Nothing is known of this writer. It has been suggested, however, that he may have been the same person as Papirius Fabianus, mentioned at the end of B. ii.

25 See end of B. vii.

26 See end of B. xvi.

27 See end of B. iii.

28 See end of B x.

29 L. Accius, or Attius, an early Roman tragic poet, and the son of a freedman, born about B.C. 170. His tragedies were chiefly imitations from the Greek. He is highly praised by Cicero. The "Praxidica" here mentioned, is probably the same as the "Pragmatica" spoken of by Aulus Gellius, B. xx. c. 3. Only some fragments of his Tragedies are left.

30 See end of B. vii.

31 See end of B. iii.

32 See end of B. ii.

33 See end of B. ii.

34 See end of B. viii.

35 See end of B. viii.

36 See end of B. viii.

37 See end of B. viii.

38 See end of B. iv.

39 See end of B. viii.

40 See end of B. ix.

41 See end of B. viii.

42 See end of B. viii.

43 See end of B. viii.

44 See end of B. viii.

45 See end of B. viii.

46 See end of B. viii.

47 See end of B. viii.

48 See end of B. vi.

49 See end of B. viii.

50 See end of B. xiv.

51 See end of B. xv.

52 See end of B. viii.

53 See end of B. ii.

54 See end of B. x.

55 See end of B. viii.

56 See end of B viii.

57 See end of B. viii.

58 See end of B. viii.

59 See end of B. xii.

60 See end of B. viii.

61 Of Miletus, the most ancient of the Greek philosophers, and the founder of the Ionian school of Philosophy. He is said to have writtten upon the Solstice and the Equinox, and a work on Astronomy, in verse, was also attributed to him. It is, however, more generally believed, that he left no written works behind him, and that those attributed to him were forgeries.

62 See end of B. ii.

63 An astronomer of Medama, or Medma, in Magna Græcia, and a disciple of Plato. He is said to have written a treatise on the winds, and Plutarch states that he demonstrated the figure of the moon.

64 An astronomer of Cyzicus, and a friend of Aristotle, whom he assisted in completing the discoveries of Eudoxus. He invented the cycle of seventy-six years, called after him the Calippie.

65 Of Colonus, a geometrician, to whom Archimedes dedicated his works on the sphere and cylinder, and on spirals.

66 A grammarian, who is supposed to have written a commentary on Aratus. Varro, De Ling. Lat. x. 10, speaks of him as making the distinctive characteristics of words to be eight in number.

67 A famous astronomer of Athens, to whom the discovery of the cycle of nineteen years has been attributed.

68 There were several learned men of this name, but it appears impossible to say which of them is the one here alluded to; probably it is either the Pythagorean philosopher of Ægæ, who wrote on Predestination, or else the historian, a native of Pieria in Macedonia. There was also an astronomer of this name, a native of Naxos, and a friend of Eudoxus of Cnidos.

69 A famous astronomer, a native of Chios. He is said to have claimed the discovery of the obliquity of the Ecliptic.

70 Probably Zenon of Elea, one of the most famous philosophers of antiquity. All of his works had perished at a very early period.

71 An Athenian astronomer, the friend and assistant of Meton, about 430 B.C.

72 An astronomer mentioned by Censorinus, as having corrected the intercalation of Cleostratus. Nothing further appears to be known of him.

73 For Hecatæus of Miletus, see B. iv. For Hecntæus of Abdera, see B. vi.

74 See end of B. iv.

75 See end of B. ii.

76 See end of B. ii.

77 A native of Soli, or else Tarsus, in Cilicia. He was the author of two Greek astronomical poems which have come down to us. He flourished about B.C. 270.

78 Nothing can be said of him with any degree of historical certainty. By the Persians he was called Zerdusht, and was said to have been the fonder of the Magian religion. There were several works in Greek bearing his name, but which, no doubt, were forgeries of a later age than that usually assigned to him.

79 He is mentioned in c. 70 of this Book, as writing a letter to Antiochus, king of Syria; but nothing further seems to be known to him.

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