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It is likewise said, that in the town of Syene, which is 5000 stadia south of Alexandria1, there is no shadow at noon, on the day of the solstice; and that a well, which was sunk for the purpose of the experiment, is illuminated by the sun in every part. Hence it appears that the sun, in this place, is vertical, and Onesicritus informs us that this is the case, about the same time, in India, at the river Hypasis2. It is well known, that at Berenice, a city of the Troglodytæ, and 4820 stadia beyond that city, in the same country, at the town of Ptolemais, which was built on the Red Sea, when the elephant was first hunted, this same thing takes place for forty-five days before the solstice and for an equal length of time after it, and that during these ninety days the shadows are turned towards the south3. Again, at Meroë, an island in the Nile and the metropolis of the Æthiopians, which is 5000 stadia4 from Syene, there are no shadows at two periods of the year, viz. when the sun is in the 18th degree of Taurus and in the 14th of Leo5. The Oretes, a people of India, have a mountain named Maleus6, near which the shadows in sum- mer fall towards the south and in winter towards the north. The seven stars of the Great Bear are visible there for fifteen nights only. In India also, in the celebrated sea-port Patale7, the sun rises to the right hand and the shadows fall towards the south. While Alexander was staving there it was observed, that the seven northern stars were seen only during the early part of the night8. Onesicritus, one of his generals, informs us in his work, that in those places in India where there are no shadows, the seven stars are not visible9; these places, he says, are called "Ascia10," and the people there do not reckon the time by hours11.

1 This would be about 625 miles. Strabo, ii. 114, and Lucan, ii. 587, give the same distance, which is probably nearly correct. Syene is, however, a little to the north of the tropic.

2 This remark is not correct, as no part of this river is between the tropics. For an account of Onesicritus see Lemaire, i. 203, 204.

3 "In meridiem umbras jaci." M. Ajasson translates this passage, "les ombres tombent pendant quatre-vingt-dix jours sur le point central du méridien." ii. 165. But I conceive that Holland's version is more correct, "for 90 days' space all the shadows are cast into the south." i. 36. The remarks of M. Alexandre are to the same effect; ".....ut bis solem in zenitho haberet (Ptolemais), Malii mensis et Augusti initio; interea vero, solem e septemtrione haberet." Lemaire, i. 393.

4 About 625 miles.

5 These days correspond to the 8th of May and the 4th of August respectively.

6 There is considerable uncertainty respecting the identity of this mountain; our author refers to it in a subsequent part of his work, where it is said to be in the country of the Monedes and Suari; vi. 22. See the note of Alexandre in Lemaire, i. 394.

7 Our author, in a subsequent part of his work, vi. 23, describes the island of Patale as situated near the mouth of the Indus; he again refers to it, xii. 25. His account of the position of the sun does not, however, apply to this place.

8 If we may suppose this to have been actually the case, we might calculate the time of the year when Alexander visited this place and the length of his stay.

9 We may presume, that our author means to say no more than that, in those places, they are occasionally invisible; literally the observation would not apply to any part of India.

10 ἄσκια, shadowless.

11 If this really were the case, it could have no relation to the astronomical position of the country.

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