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Raisins, the name given to which is "astaphis," would be injurious to the stomach, abdomen, and intestines, were it not for the stones within them, which act as a corrective.1 When the stones are removed, raisins, it is thought, are beneficial to the bladder, and good for cough:2 in the last case, the raisin of the white grape is considered the best. Raisins are good also for the trachea and the kidneys, and the wine made from them is particularly efficacious for the sting of the serpent called hæmorrhoïs.3 In combination with meal of cummin or coriander, they are employed topically for inflammations of the testes. For carbuncles and diseases of the joints, the stones are removed, and the raisins are pounded with rue; if used for ulcers, the sores must be first fomented with wine.

Used with the stones, raisins are a cure for epinyctis, honeycomb ulcers,4 and dysentery; and for gangrenes they are applied topically with radish rind and honey, being first boiled in oil. They are used with panax,5 for gout and loose nails; and they are sometimes eaten by themselves, in combination with pep- per, for the purpose of cleansing the mouth and clearing the brain.

1 By reason, probably, of their astringent properties.

2 Though no longer used medicinally, they are still considered to be good pectorals.

3 See B. xx. cc. 23 and 81.

4 "Ceria;" known in modern medicine as "favus."

5 The Pastinaca opopanax of Linnæus. See B. xii. c. 57.

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