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From the fruit of the mulberry a medicament is prepared, called "panchrestos,"1 "stomatice," or "arteriace:" the following is the method employed. Three sextarii of the juice are reduced, at a slow heat, to the consistency of honey; two denarii of dried omphacium2 or one of myrrh, with one denarius of saffron, are then added, the whole being beaten up together and mixed with the decoction. There is no medica- ment known that is more soothing than this, for affections of the mouth, the trachea, the uvula, and the stomach. There is also another mode of preparing it: two sextarii of mulberry juice and one of Attic honey are boiled down in the manner above stated.

There are some other marvellous properties, also, which are mentioned in reference to this tree. When the tree is in bud, and before the appearance of the leaves, the germs of the fruit must be gathered with the left hand—the Greeks give them the name of "ricini."3 These germs, worn as an amulet before they have touched the ground, have the effect of arresting hæmrrhage, whether proceeding from a wound, from the mouth, from the nostrils, or from piles; for which purposes they are, accordingly, put away and kept. Similar virtues are attributed to a branch just beginning to bear, broken off at full moon, provided also it has not touched the ground: this branch, it is said, attached to the arm, is peculiarly efficacious for the suppression of the catamenia when in excess. The same effect is produced, it is said, when the woman herself pulls it off, whatever time it may happen to be, care being taken not to let it touch the ground, and to wear it attached to the body. The leaves of the mulberry-tree beaten up fresh, or a decoction of them dried, are applied topically for stings inflicted by serpents: an infusion of them, taken in drink, is equally efficacious for that purpose. The juice extracted from the bark of the root, taken in wine or oxycrate, counteracts the venom of the scorpion.

We must also give some account of the method of preparing this medicament employed by the ancients: extracting the juice from the fruit, both ripe and unripe, they mixed it to- gether, and then boiled it down in a copper vessel to the con- sistency of honey. Some persons were in the habit of adding myrrh and cypress, and then left it to harden in the sun, mixing it with a spatula three times a-day. Such was their receipt for the stomatice, which was also employed by them to promote the cicatrization of wounds. There was another method, also, of dealing with the juice of this fruit: extracting the juice, they used the dried fruit with various articles of food,4 as tending to heighten the flavour; and they were in the habit of employing it medicinally5 for corroding ulcers, pituitous expectorations, and all cases in which astringents were required for the viscera. They used it also for the purpose of cleaning6 the teeth. A third mode of employing the juices of this tree is to boil down the leaves and root, the decoction being used, with oil,7 as a liniment for the cure of burns. The leaves are also applied by themselves for the same purpose.

An incision made in the root at harvest-time, supplies a juice that is extremely useful for tooth-ache, gatherings, and suppurations; it acts, also, as a purgative upon the bowels. Mulberry-leaves, macerated in urine, remove the hair from hides.

1 "All-healing," "mouth-medicine," and "medicine for the trachea."

2 See B. xii. c. 60. A rob, or sirop of mulberries is prepared for much the same purposes at the present day, but without the omphaciun, myrrh, or saffron. An "arteriace" is also mentioned in B. xx. c. 79.

3 Hermolaüs Barbarus is possibly right in suggesting "cytini," which name has been previously mentioned in connection with the calyx of the pomegranate.

4 From the account given by Dioscorides, B. i. c. 181, this appears to be the meaning of the passage, which is very elliptically expressed, if, indeed, it is not imperfect.

5 In a powdered state, probably, as mentioned by Dioscorides.

6 The use of the word "conluebant" would almost make it appear that he is speaking of a liquid.

7 The juice (if, indeed, Pliny intends to specify it as an ingredient) will not, as Fée remarks, combine with oil. Dioscorides says, B. i. c. 180, that the leaves are bruised aud applied with oil to burns.

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