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Of the echios there are two kinds; one1 of which resembles pennyroyal in appearance, and has a concave leaf. It is administered, in doses of two drachmæ, in four cyathi of wine. The other2 kind is distinguished by a prickly down, and bears small heads resembling those of vipers: it is usually taken in wine and vinegar. Some persons give the name of "echios personata"3 to a kind of echios with larger leaves than the others, and burrs of considerable size, resembling that of the lappa.4 The root of this plant is boiled and administered in vinegar.

Henbane, pounded with the leaves on, is taken in wine, for the sting of the asp in particular.

1 Desfontaines identifies it with the Saponaria ocimoïdes. Fée thinks it may have possibly been some kind of sage, or else a variety of the Lavendula stœchas of Linnæus, French lavender. Littré gives the Silene Gallica of Linnæus, the Gallic catchfly.

2 Identified by Fée with the Pseudanchusa, Echis, or Doris of B. xxii. c. 24, the Anchusa Italica of Linnæus. Littré gives the Echium rubrum of Linnæus.

3 The Arctium lappa of Linnæus, probably, our Great clot-burr. See B. xxi. c. 51.

4 See B. xxi. c. 64.

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