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It is generally believed that asses' milk effaces wrinkles in the face, renders the skin more delicate, and preserves its whiteness: and it is a well-known fact, that some women are in the habit of washing their face with it seven1 hundred times daily, strictly observing that number. Poppæa, the wife of the Emperor Nero, was the first to practise this; indeed, she had sitting-baths, prepared solely with asses' milk, for which purpose whole troops of she-asses2 used to attend her on her journies.3 Purulent eruptions on the face are removed by an application of butter, but white lead, mixed with the butter, is an improvement. Pure butter, alone, is used for serpiginous eruptions of the face, a layer of barley-meal being pow- dered over it. The caul of a cow that has just calved, is applied, while still moist, to ulcers of the face.

The following recipe may seem frivolous, but still, to please the women,4 it must not be omitted; the pastern-bone of a white steer, they say, boiled forty days and forty nights, till it is quite dissolved, and then applied to the face in a linen cloth, will remove wrinkles and preserve the whiteness of the skin. An application of bull's dung, they say, will impart a rosy tint to the cheeks, and not crocodilea5 even is better for the purpose; the face, however, must be washed with cold water, both before and after the application. Sun-burns and all other discolorations of the skin, are removed by the aid of' calves' dung kneaded up by hand with oil and gum; ulcerations and chaps of the mouth, by an application of veal or beef-suet, mixed with goose-grease and juice of' ocimum. There is another composition, also, made of veal-suet with stag's marrow and leaves of white-thorn, the whole beaten up together. Marrow, too, mixed with resin, even if it be cow marrow only, is equally good; and the broth of cow-beef is productive of similar effects. A most excellent remedy for lichens on the face is a glutinous substance prepared from the genitals of a male calf, melted with vinegar and live sulphur, and stirred together with the branch of a fig-tree: this composition is applied twice a day, and should be used quite fresh. This glue, similarly prepared from a decoction of honey and vinegar, is a cure for leprous spots, which are also removed by applying a he-goat's liver warm.

Elephantiasis, too, is removed by an application of goats' gall; and leprous spots and furfuraceous eruptions by em- ploying bull's gall with the addition of nitre, or else asses' urine about the rising of the Dog-star. Spots on the face are removed by either bull's gall or ass's gall diluted in water by itself, care being taken to avoid the sun or wind after the skin has peeled off. A similar effect is produced, also, by using bull's gall or calf's gall, in combination with seed of cunila and the ashes of a deer's horn, burnt at the rising of Canicula.

Asses' fat, in particular, restores the natural colour to scars and spots on the skin caused by lichen or leprosy. A he-goat's gall, mixed with cheese, live sulphur, and sponge reduced to ashes, effectually removes freckles, the composition being brought to the consistency of honey before being applied. Some persons, however, prefer using dried gall, and mix with it warm bran, in the proportion of one obolus to four oboli of honey, the spots being rubbed briskly first. He-goat suet, too, is highly efficacious, used in combination with gith, sulphur, and iris; this mixture being also employed, with goose-grease, stag's marrow, resin, and lime, for the cure of cracked lips. I find it stated by certain authors, that persons who have freckles on the skin are looked upon as disqualified from taking any part in the sacrifices prescribed by the magic art.

1 There surely must be a wrong reading here, or he cannot intend this to be understood literally.

2 See B. xi. c. 96.

3 One of the mistresses of Louis XV. not only did this, but (in a spirit of great charity and consideration, of course) gave the milk to the poor after she had thus used it.

4 "Ad desideria mulierum."

5 See c. 28 of this Book.

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