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For the cure of ulcers, wool-grease is used, with ashes of burnt barley and verdigrease, in equal quantities; a preparation which is good, too, for carcinomata and spreading sores. It cauterizes the flesh also around the margins of ulcers, and reduces and makes level fungous excrescences formed by sores. Ashes, too, of burnt sheep's dung, mixed with nitre, are of great efficacy for the cure of carcinomata; as also those of lambs' thigh-bones, in cases more particularly where ulcers refuse to cicatrize. Very considerable, too, is the efficacy of lights, ram's lights in particular, which are of the greatest utility for reducing and making level the fleshy excrescences formed by ulcerous sores. With sheep's dung, warmed beneath an earthen pan and kneaded, the swellings attendant upon wounds are reduced, and fistulous sores and epinyctis are cleansed and made to heal.

But it is in the ashes of a burnt dog's head that the greatest efficacy is found; as it quite equals spodium1 in its property of cauterizing all kinds of fleshy excrescences, and causing sores to heal. Mouse-dung, too, is used as a cautery, and weasels' dung, burnt to ashes. Pounded millepedes, mixed with turpentine and earth of Sinope,2 are used for penetrating carcinomata and fleshy indurations in deep- seated sores; and the same substances are remarkably useful for the treatment of ulcers threatened with maggots.

Indeed the several varieties of worms themselves are possessed of marvellously useful properties. The worms,3 for instance, that breed in wood are curative of all kinds of ulcers: reduced to ashes, with an equal quantity of anise, and applied with oil, they heal cancerous sores. Earthworms are so remark- ably healing for wounds recently inflicted, that it is a very general belief that by the end of seven days they will unite sinews even that have been cut as under: hence it is that it is re- commended to keep them preserved in honey. Ashes of burnt earth-worms, in combination with tar or Simblian honey,4 cau- terize the indurated margins of ulcerous sores. Some persons dry earthworms in the sun, and apply them to wounds with vinegar, the application not being removed till the end of acouple of days. The earth also that adheres to snails is useful, similarly em- ployed; snails, too, taken whole from the shell, are pounded and applied to fresh wounds, to heal them, and they arrest the progress of cancerous sores.

There is an insect called "herpes"5 by the Greeks, which is particularly useful for the cure of all kinds of serpiginous6 sores. Snails, beaten up, shells and all, are very good for this purpose; and it is said that, with myrrh and frankincense, they will unite the sinews even when cut asunder. The fat, too, of a dragon,7 dried in the sun, is remarkably usefull, and so are the brains of a cock or capon for recent wounds. By taking with the food salt in which vipers have been preserved, ulcers are rendered more easy of treatment, it is said, and are made to heal all the sooner. Antonius8 the physician, after operating in vain upon ulcers, that were incurable with the knife, used to prescribe viper's flesh to be eaten by the patient, whereby a marvellously speedy cure was effected.

The locust called "troxallis,"9 reduced to ashes and applied with honey, removes the indurated margins of ulcerous sores: ashes, also, of burnt pigeons' dung, with arsenic and honey, are very effectual in all cases where a cautery is required. The brains of a horned owl, applied with goose-grease, are marvellously efficacious for uniting wounds, it is said. For the malignant ulcer known as "cacoëthes,"10 the ashes of a ram's thigh-bones are used, mixed with woman's milk, the sores being washed with linen cloths well rinsed. For the same purpose, the bird known as the screech-owl11 is boiled in oil, ewe-milk butter and honey being added to the preparation, when properly dissolved. An application of bees that have died in the honey, acts emolliently upon the indurated margins of ulcerous sores; and for the cure of elephantiasis, the blood and ashes of a weasel are employed. Wounds and weals pro- duced by blows are effaced by an application of sheep-skins fresh from the body.

1 See B. xxxiv. c. 34.

2 See B. xxxv. cc. 12, 13.

3 "Cosses."

4 Dioscorides speaks of this honey as the produce of Sicily.

5 The "creeper." It has not been identified.

6 Which are also called "herpetic" or "creeping."

7 The serpent so called.

8 Antonius Castor, probably. See end of B. xx.

9 See c. 16 of this Book.

10 A chronic cancer.

11 "Ulula."

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