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1 The first crime having been committed by him who introduced the use of gold rings. See the beginning of c. 4 of this Book.
2 The golden denarius was known also as the "aureus" or "gold coin." It was worth 25 silver denarii. As to the modern value of the money used by the ancients, see the Introduction to Vol. III. The golden denarius is mentioned also in B. xxxiv. c. 17, and in B. xxxvii. c. 3.
3 A.U.C. 479.
4 Meaning, literally, the "little pound," in reference to the diminished weight of the "as."
5 Meaning "two pounds," or in other words, "two asses." See B. xxxiv. c. 2. As to the weight of the "libra," or pound, see the Introduction to Vol. III.
6 "Brasse bullion, or in masse."—Holland.
7 "Money weighed out," i.e. "expenses."
8 "Money weighed out for the payment of interest."
9 "To weigh out money for payment," i.e. "to pay."
10 "A weight of money."
11 "Weighers-out;" meaning "keepers of accounts," or "paymasters."
12 "Weighers-out" of the soldiers' wages; i.e. "paymasters."
13 From "pecus," a sheep. See B. xviii. c. 3.
14 "Pounds" or "asses."
15 The third of an "as."
16 The fourth of an "as."
17 Or ounces; being one-fourth of the "as," of one "libra" in weight. See Introduction to Vol. III.
18 A.U.C. 663.
19 The same as the quinarius, one-half of the denarius. In B. xx. c. 100, it is mentioned as a weight. See also the Introduction to Vol. III.
20 As, originally, there were 288 "scripula," or scruples, to the "libra" or pound, this would appear to give 5760 sestertii to the pound of gold, and not 900 merely. Though this apparent discrepancy has generally puzzled the commentators, the solution, as suggested by M. Parisot, in the Notes to Ajasson's Translation, appears equally simple and satisfactory. He suggests that in the "as," or "libra," of two ounces, there were 288 scruples. Now, the scruple remaining the same, when the as or libra was reduced to one ounce, it would contain but 144 of these scruples. Then, on making the as the sixteenth part of a denarius instead of the tenth, it would lose three-eighths of its value in scruples, or in other words, 54 scruples, thus making it worth but 90 scruples. Then again, as above stated, by the Papirian Law, the weight or value of the libra or as was reduced one-half, making its value in scruples only 45; or, in other words, five thirty-seconds of its original value, when worth two unciæ or ounces. This number of scruples to the libra would give, at the rate of twenty sesterces to the scruple of gold, exactly 900 sesterces to the libra of gold.
21 Or "aurei."
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