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Cæruleum has the medicinal property of acting as a detergent upon ulcers. Hence it is, that it is used as an ingredient in plasters, as also in cauteries. As to sil, it is pounded with the greatest difficulty: viewed as a medicament, it is slightly mordent and astringent, and fills up the cavities left by ulcers. To make it the more serviceable, it is burnt in earthen vessels.

The prices of things, which I have in different places annexed, vary, I am well aware, according to the locality, and experience a change almost every year: variations dependent upon the opportunities afforded for navigation, and the terms upon which the merchant may have purchased the article. It may so happen, too, that some wealthy dealer has engrossed the market, and so enhanced the price: for I am by no means forgetful of the case of Demetrius, who in the reign of the Emperor Nero was accused before the consuls by the whole community of the Seplasia.1 Still, however, I have thought it necessary to annex the usual price of each commodity at Rome, in order to give some idea of their relative values.

SUMMARY.—Remedies, narratives, and observations, one thousand one hundred and twenty-five.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Domitianus Cæsar,2 Junius Gracchanus,3 L. Piso,4 Verrius,5 M. Varro,6 Corvinus,7 Atticus Pomponius,8 Calvus Licinius,9 Cornelius Nepos,10 Mucianus,11 Bocchus,12 Fetialis,13 Fenestella,14 Valerius Maximus,15 Julius Bassus16 who wrote on Medicine in Greek, Sextius Niger17 who did the same.

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Theophrastus,18 Democritus,19 Juba,20 Timæus21 the historian, who wrote on Metallic Medicines, Heraclides,22 Andreas,23 Diagoras,24 Botrys,25 Archidemus,26 Dionysius,27 Aristogenes,28 Democles,29 Mnesides,30 Attalus31 the physician, Xenocrates32 the son of Zeno, Theomnestus,33 Nymphodorus,34 Iollas,35 Apollodorus,36 Pasiteles37 who wrote on Wonderful Works, Antigonus38 who wrote on the Toreutic art, Menæchmus39 who did the same, Xenocrates40 who did the same, Duris41 who did the same, Menander42 who wrote on Toreutics, Heliodorus43 who wrote on the Votive Offerings of the Athenians, Metrodorus44 of Scepsis.

1 A quarter in the city of Capua, inhabited by druggists and perfumers; see B. xvi. c. 18, and B. xxxiv. c. 25.

2 In some MSS. the reading here is "Domitius," and in others the name is omitted altogether. We learn from the writings of Suetonius, that the Emperor Domitian devoted himself to literary pursuits in his younger days, and Quintilian and the younger Pliny speak of his poetical productions as equal to those of the greatest masters. Sillig expresses an opinion that Pliny may possibly have borrowed something from his works, and inserted his name, with a view of pleasing the young prince and his father, the Emperor Vespasian.

3 He is quoted in Chapter 9 of this Book, where it appears that he took his cognomen on account of his friendship for C. Gracchus. He wrote a work, "De Potestatibus," which gave an account of the Roman magistrates from the time of the kings. A few fragments of this work, which was highly esteemed by the ancients, are all that remain.

4 See end of B. ii.

5 See end of B. iii.

6 See end of B. ii.

7 Valerius Messala Corvinus. See end of B. ix.

8 See end of B. vii.

9 Calvus Licinius Macer was the son of C. Licinius Macer, a person of prætorian rank, who, on being impeached of extortion by Cicero, committed suicide. We learn from our author, B. xxxiv. c. 50, that in his youth he devoted himself to study with the greatest zeal, and applied himself with singular energy to intellectual pursuits. His constitution, however, was early exhausted, and he died in his 35th or 36th year, leaving behind him twenty-one orations. We learn from Cicero and Quintilian that his compositions were carefully moulded after the models of the Attic school, but were deficient in ease and freshness. As a poet he was the author of many short pieces, equally remarkable for their looseness and elegance. He wrote also some severe lampoons on Pompey and Cæsar, and their respective partisans. Ovid and Horace, besides several of the prose writers, make mention of him.

10 See end of B. ii.

11 See end of B. ii.

12 Cornelius Bocchus. See end of B. xvi.

13 Annius or Annæus Fetialis. See end of B. xvi.

14 See end of B. viii.

15 See end of B. vii.

16 See end of B. xx.

17 See end of B. xii.

18 See end of B. iii.

19 See end of B. ii.

20 See end of B. v.

21 The person mentioned in Chapter 13 of this Book, is probably different from those of the same name mentioned at the end of Books ii. and iv. If so, no further particulars are known of him.

22 It seems impossible to say which of the physicians of this name is here alluded to. See end of Books iv. and xii.

23 See end of B. xx.

24 See end of B. xii.

25 See end of B. xiii.

26 See end of B. xii.

27 See end of B. xii.; and for Sallustius Dionysius, see end of B. xxxi.

28 See end of B. xxix.

29 See end of B. xii.

30 See end of B. xii.

31 As King Attalus was very skilful in medicine, Hardouin is of opinion that he is the person here meant; see end of B. viii.

32 A different person, most probably, from the writer of Pliny's age, mentioned in B. xxxvii. c. 2. The Xenocrates here mentioned is probably the same person that is spoken of in B. xxxv. c. 36, a statuary of the school of Lysippus, and the pupil either of Tisicrates or of Euthycrates, who flourished about B.C. 260.

33 There were two artists of this name, prior to the time of Pliny; a sculptor, mentioned by him in B. xxxiv. c. 19, and a painter, contemporary with Apelles, mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 36. It is impossible to say which of them, if either, is here meant.

34 See end of B. iii.

35 See end of B. xii.

36 It is impossible to say which writer of this name is here meant. See end of Books iv., viii., xi., and xx.

37 A statuary, sculptor, and chaser in silver, who flourished at Rome about B.C. 60. He was a native of Magna Græcia, in the south of Italy. He is not only mentioned in Chapter 55 of the present Book, but also in B. xxxv. c. 45, as an artist of the highest distinction. His narrow escape from a panther, while copying from nature, is mentioned in B. xxxvi. c. 4. His five Books on the most celebrated works of sculpture and chasing were looked upon as a high authority in art. He was also the head of a school of artists.

38 A writer on painting of this name is mentioned by Diogenes Laertius, B. vii. c. 12. He is probably the same as the person here mentioned, and identical with the Greek sculptor mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiv. c. 19, who probably flourished about 240 B.C. The Toreutic Art, "Toreutice," was the art of making raised work in silver or bronze, either by graving or casting: but the exact meaning of the word is somewhat uncertain.

39 Menæchmus of Sievon, probably; see end of B. iv., also B. xxxiv. c. 19.

40 If he is really a different person from the Xenocrates mentioned above, nothing is known of him.

41 See end of B. vii.

42 Possibly one of the persons mentioned at the end of Books viii., xix., and xxxi. If not, nothing whatever is known of him.

43 An Athenian writer, surnamed "Periegetes." The work here mentioned, is alluded to by other writers under different names. From a passage in Athenæus, he is supposed to have lived after the time of Antiochus Epiphanes.

44 See end of B. iii.

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