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1 WE must, in the next place, give an account of the ores of brass,2 a metal which, in respect of utility, is next in value; indeed the Corinthian brass comes before silver, not to say almost before gold itself. It is also, as I have stated above,3 the standard of monetary value;4 hence the terms "æra militum," "tribuni ærarii," "ærarium," "obærati," and "ære diruti."5 I have already mentioned for what length of time the Roman people employed no coin except brass;6 and there is another ancient fact which proves that the esteem in which it was held was of equal antiquity with that of the City itself, the circumstance that the third associated body7 which Numa established, was that of the braziers.


The ore is extracted in the mode that has been described above,8 and is then purified by fusion. The metal is also obtained from a coppery stone called "cadmia."9 The most highly esteemed copper is procured from beyond seas: it was formerly obtained in Campania also, and at present is found in the country of the Bergomates,10 at the extremity of Italy. It is said to have been lately discovered also in the province of Germany.

(2.) In Cyprus, where copper was first discovered, it is also procured from another stone, which is called "chalcitis."11 This, however, was afterwards considered of little value, a better kind having been found in other regions, especially that called "aurichalcum,"12 which was long in high request, on account of its excellent quality; but none of it has been found for this long time, the earth having been quite exhausted. The kind which was next in value was the Sallustian,13 procured from the Alpine district of the Centrones;14 but this did not last long, and was succeeded by the Livian, in Gaul. They both took their names from the owners of the mines; the former a friend of the Emperor Augustus, the latter that emperor's wife.15 They soon failed, however, and in the Livian even there is now found but a very small quantity of ore. That which is at present held in the highest estimation is the Marian, likewise known as the Corduban:16 next to the Livian, this kind most readily absorbs cadmia, and becomes almost as excellent as aurichalcum17 for making sesterces and double asses,18 the Cyprian copper being thought good enough for the as. Thus much concerning the natural qualities of this metal.


The other kinds are made artificially, all of which will be described in the appropriate places, the more celebrated kinds first coming under our notice. Formerly a mixture was made of copper fused with gold and silver, and the workmanship in this metal was considered even more valuable than the material itself; but, at the present day, it is difficult to say whether the workmanship in it, or the material, is the worst. Indeed, it is wonderful, that while the value of these works19 has so infinitely increased, the reputation of the art itself20 is nearly extinct. But it would appear, that in this, as in every thing else, what was formerly done for the sake of reputation, is now undertaken for the mere purpose of gain. For whereas this art was ascribed to the gods21 themselves, and men of rank in all countries endeavoured to acquire fame by the practice of it, we have now so entirely lost the method of making this valuable compound by fusion, that, for this long time past, not even chance itself has assumed, in this department, the privilege which formerly belonged to art.22

Next after the above compound, so celebrated in antiquity, the Corinthian metal has been the most highly esteemed. This was a compound produced by accident, when Corinth was burnt at the time of its capture.23 There has been a wonderful mania with many for gaining possession of this metal. It is even said, that Verres, whom M. Cicero caused to be condemned, was proscribed by Antonius, along with Cicero, for no other reason than his refusal to give up some specimens of Corinthian metal, which were in his possession. But most of these people seem to me to make a pretence of their discernment in reference to this metal, rather for the purpose of distinguishing themselves from the multitude, than from any real knowledge which they possess; and this I will briefly show.

Corinth was captured in the third year of the 158th Olympiad, being the year of the City, 608,24 some ages after the period when those artists flourished, who produced all the specimens of what these persons now call Corinthian metal. It is in order, therefore, to refute this opinion, that I shall state the age when these different artists lived; for, if we reckon according to the above-mentioned era of the Olympiads, it will be easy to compare their dates with the corresponding years of our City. The only genuine Corinthian vessels, then, are those which these men of taste metamorphose, sometimes into dishes, sometimes into lamps, or even into washing-basins,25 without any regard to decency. They are of three kinds; the white variety, approaching very nearly to the splendour of silver, and in which that metal forms a large proportion of the compound; a second kind, in which the yellow colour of gold predominates; and a third, in which all the metals are mixed in equal proportions. Besides these, there is another mixture, the composition of which it is impossible to describe, for although it has been formed into images and statues by the hand of man, it is chance that rules in the formation of the compound. This last is highly prized for its colour, which approaches to that of liver, and it is on this account that it is called "hepatizon:"26 it is far inferior to the Corinthian metal, but much superior to the Æginetan and Delian, which long held the first rank.


The Delian brass was the first27 that became famous, all the world coming to Delos to purchase it; and hence the attention paid to the manufacture of it. It was in this island that brass first obtained celebrity for the manufacture of the feet and supports of dining-couches. After some time it came to be employed for the statues of the gods, and the effigies of men and other animated beings.


The next most esteemed brass was the Æginetan; the island itself being rendered famous for its brass—not indeed that the metal was produced there, but because the annealing of the Æginetan manufactories was so excellent. A brazen Ox, which was taken from this is and, now stands in the Forum Bearium28 at Rome. This is a specimen of the Æginetan metal, as the Jupiter in the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, in the Capitol, is of the Delian. Myron29 used the former metal and Polycletus30 the latter; they were contemporaries and fellow-pupils, but there was great rivalry between them as to their materials.


Ægina was particularly famous for the manufacture of sockets only for lamp-stands, as Tarentum was for that of the branches;31 the most complete articles were, therefore, produced by the union of the two. There are persons, too, who are not ashamed to give for one a sum equal to the salary of a military tribune,32 although, as its name indicates, its only use is to hold a lighted candle. On the sale of one of these lamp-stands, Theon the public crier announced, that the purchaser must also take, as part of the lot, one Clesippus, a fuller, who was hump-backed, and in other respects, of a hideous aspect. The purchase was made by a female named33 Gegania, for fifty thousand sesterces. Upon her exhibiting these purchases at an entertainment which she gave, the slave, for the amusement of her guests, was brought in naked. Conceiving an infamous passion for him, she first admitted him to her bed, and finally left him all her estate. Having thus become excessively rich, he adored the lamp-stand as much as any divinity, and the story became a sort of pendant to the celebrity of the Corinthian lamp-stands. Still, however, good morals were vindicated in the end, for he erected a splendid monument to her memory, and so kept alive the eternal remembrance of the misconduct of Gegania. But although it is well known that there are no lamp-stands in existence made of the Corinthian metal, yet this name is very generally attached to them, because, in consequence of the victory of Mummius,34 Corinth was destroyed: at the same time, however, it should be remembered that this victory dispersed a number of bronzes which originally came from many other cities of Achaia.


The ancients were in the habit of making the door-sills and even the doors of the temples of brass. I find it stated, also, that Cneius Octavius, who obtained a naval triumph over King Perseus,35 erected the double portico to the Flaminian Circus, which was called the "Corinthian" from the brazen capitals of the pillars.36 It is stated also, that an ordinance was made that the Temple of Vesta37 should be covered with a coating of Syracusan metal. The capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of similar metal. Even the opulence, too, of private individuals has been wrested to similar purposes. Spurius Carvilius, the quæstor, among the other charges which he brought against Camillus,38 accused him of having brazen doors in his house.


We learn from L. Piso,39 that Cneius Manlius was the first who introduced brazen banquetting-couches, buffets, and tables with single feet,40 when he entered the City in triumph, in the year of Rome 567, after his conquests in Asia. We also learn from Antias,41 that the heirs of L. Crassus, the orator, sold a number of banquetting-couches adorned with brass. The tripods,42 which were called Delphian, because they were devoted more particularly to receiving the offerings that were presented to the Delphian Apollo, were usually made of brass: also the pendant lamps,43 so much admired, which were placed in the temples, or gave their light in the form of trees loaded with fruit; such as the one, for instance, in the Temple of the Palatine Apollo,44 which Alexander the Great, at the sacking of Thebes, brought to Cyme,45 and dedicated to that god.


But after some time the artists everywhere applied themselves to representations of the gods. I find that the first brass image, which was made at Rome, was that of Ceres; and that the expenses were defrayed out of the property that belonged to Spurius Cassius, who was put to death by his own father, for aspiring to the regal office.46 The practice, however, soon passed from the gods to the statues and representations of men, and this in various forms. The ancients stained their statues with bitumen, which makes it the more remarkable that they were afterwards fond of covering them with gold. I do not know whether this was a Roman invention; but it certainly has the repute of being an ancient practice at Rome.

It was not the custom in former times to give the likeness of individuals, except of such as deserved to be held in lasting remembrance on account of some illustrious deed; in the first instance, for a victory at the sacred games, and more particularly the Olympic Games, where it was the usage for the victors always to have their statues consecrated. And if any one was so fortunate as to obtain the prize there three times, his statue was made with the exact resemblance of every individual limb; from which circumstance they were called "iconicæ."47 I do not know whether the first public statues were not erected by the Athenians, and in honour of Harmodius and Aristogiton, who slew the tyrant;48 an event which took place in the same year in which the kings were expelled from Rome. This custom, from a most praiseworthy emulation, was afterwards adopted by all other nations; so that statues were erected as ornaments in the public places of municipal towns, and the memory of individuals was thus preserved, their various honours being inscribed on the pedestals, to be read there by posterity, and not on their tombs alone. After some time, a kind of forum or public place came to be made in private houses and in our halls, the clients adopting this method of doing honour to their patrons.


In former times the statues that were thus dedicated were clad in the toga.49 Naked statues also, brandishing a spear, after the manner of the youths at their gymnastic exercises, were much admired; these were called "Achillean." The Greek practice is, not to cover any part of the body; while, on the contrary, the Roman and the military statues have the addition of a cuirass. Cæsar, the Dictator, permitted a statue with a cuirass to be erected in honour of him in his Forum.50 As to the statues which are made in the garb of the Luperci,51 they are of no older date than those which have been lately erected, covered with a cloak.52 Mancinus gave directions, that he should be represented in the dress which he wore when he was surrendered to the enemy.53 It has been remarked by some authors, that L. Attius,54 the poet, had a statue of himself erected in the Temple of the Muses,55 which was extremely large, although he himself was very short.

Equestrian statues are also held in esteem in Rome; but they are of Greek origin, no doubt. Among the Greeks, those persons only were honoured with equestrian statues who were victors on horseback56 in the sacred games; though afterwards the same distinction was bestowed on those who were successful in the races with chariots with two or four horses: hence the use of chariots with us in the statues of those who have triumphed. But this did not take place until a late period; and it was not until the time of the late Emperor Augustus, that we had chariots represented with six horses,57 as also with elephants.


The custom of erecting chariots with two horses in honour of those who had discharged the office of prætor, and had passed round the Circus in a chariot, is not of ancient date. That of placing statues on pillars is older, as it was done in honour of C. Mænius,58 who conquered the ancient Latins, to whom the Romans by treaty gave one third of the spoil which they had obtained. It was in the same consulship also, that the "rostra" or beaks of the ships, which had been taken from the Antiates when vanquished, were fixed to the tribunal; it being the year of the City, 416.59 The same thing was done also by Caius Duillius, who was the first to obtain a naval triumph over the Carthaginians: his column still remains in the Forum.60 I am not certain whether this honour was not first conferred by the people on L. Minutius, the præfect of the markets; whose statue was erected without the Trigeminian Gate,61 by means of a tax of the twelfth of an as62 per head: the same thing, however, had been previously done by the senate, and it would have been a more distinguished honour had it not had its origin on such frivolous occasions. The statue of Attus Navius,63 for example, was erected before the senate-house, the pedestal of which was consumed when the senate-house itself was burnt at the funeral of Publius Clodius.64 The statue of Hermodorus also, the Ephesian,65 the interpreter of the laws which were transcribed by the Decemvirs, was erected by the public in the Comitium.66

It was for a very different, and more important reason, that the statue of Horatius Cocles was erected, he having singly prevented the enemy from passing the Sublician bridge;67 a statue which remains to this day. I am not at all surprized, too, that statues of the Sibyl should have been erected near the Rostra, even though three in number; one of which was repaired by Sextus Pacuvius Taurus, ædile of the people, and the other two by M. Messala. I should have considered these and that of Attus Navius to have been the oldest, as having been placed there in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, had there not been in the Capitol the statues of the preceding kings.68

(6.) Among these we have the statues of Romullus and Tatius without the tunic; as also that of Camillus, near the Rostra. The equestrian statue of Marcius Tremulus, clad in the toga, stood before the Temple of the Castors;69 him who twice subdued the Samnites, and by the capture of Anagnia delivered the people from their tribute.70 Among the most ancient are those of Tullus Clœlius, Lucius Roscius, Spurius Nautius, and C. Fulcinus, near the Rostra, all of whom were assassinated by the Fidenates, when on their mission as ambassadors.71 It was the custom with the republic to confer this honour on those who had been unjustly put to death; such as P. Junius, also, and Titus Coruncanius, who were slain by Teuta, queen of the Illyrians.72 It would be wrong not to mention what is stated in the Annals, that their statues, erected in the Forum, were three feet in height; whence it would appear that such were the dimensions of these marks of honour in those times.

Nor must I forget to mention Cneius Octavius, on account of the language used by the senate.73 When King Antiochus said, that he would give him an answer at another time, Octavius drew a line round him with a stick, which he happened to have in his hand, and compelled him to give an answer before he allowed him to step beyond the circle. Octavius being slain74 while on this embassy, the senate ordered his statue to be placed in the most conspicuous75 spot; and that spot was the Rostra. A statue appears also to have been decreed to Taracia Caia, or Furetia, a Vestal Virgin, the same, too, to be placed wherever she might think fit; an additional honour, no less remarkable, it is thought, than the grant itself of a statue to a female. I will state her merits in the words of the Annals: "Because she had gratuitously presented to the public the field bordering on the Tiber.76


I find also, that statues were erected in honour of Pythagoras and of Alcibiades, in the corners of the Comitium; in obedience to the command of the Pythian Apollo, who, in the Samnite War,77 had directed that statues of the bravest and the wisest of the Greeks should be erected in some conspicuous spot: and here they remained until Sylla, the Dictator, built the senate-house on the site. It is wonderful that the senate should then have preferred Pythagoras to Socrates, who, in consequence of his wisdom, had been preferred to all other men78 by the god himself; as, also, that they should have preferred Alcibiades for valour to so many other heroes; or, indeed, any one to Themistocles, who so greatly excelled in both qualities. The reason of the statues being raised on columns, was, that the persons represented might be elevated above other mortals; the same thing being signified by the use of arches, a new invention which had its origin among the Greeks. I am of opinion that there is no one to whom more statues were erected than to Demetrius Phalereus79 at Athens: for there were three hundred and sixty erected in his honour, there being reckoned at that period no more days in the year: these, however, were soon broken to pieces. The different tribes erected statues, in all the quarters of Rome, in honour of Marius Gratidianus, as already stated;80 but they were all thrown down by Sylla, when he entered Rome.


Pedestrian statues have been, undoubtedly, for a long time in estimation at Rome: equestrian statues are, however, of considerable antiquity, and females even have participated in this honour; for the statue of Clælia is equestrian,81 as if it had not been thought sufficient to have her clad in the toga; and this, although statues were not decreed to Lucretia, or to Brutus, who had expelled the kings, and through both of whom Clælia had been given as a hostage.82 I should have thought that this statue, and that of Cocles, were the first that were erected at the public expense—for it is most likely that the statues of Attus and the Sibyl were erected by Tarquinius, and those of each of the other kings by themselves respectively —had not Piso stated that the statue of Clælia was erected by those who had been hostages with her, when they were given up by Porsena, as a mark of honour.

But Annius Fetialis83 states, on the other hand, that the equestrian statue, which stood opposite the Temple of Jupiter Stator, in the vestibule of the house of Tarquinius Superbus, was that of Valeria,84 the daughter of the consul Publicola; and that she was the only person that escaped and swam across the Tiber; the rest of the hostages that had been sent to Porsena having been destroyed by a stratagem of Tarquinius.


We are informed by L. Piso, that when M. Æmilius and C. Popilius were consuls, for the second time,85 the censors, P. Cornelius Scipio and M. Popilius, caused all the statues erected round the Forum in honour of those who had borne the office of magistrates, to be removed; with the exception of those which had been placed there, either by order of the people or of the senate. The statue also which Spurius Cassius,86 who had aspired to the supreme authority, had erected in honour of himself, before the Temple of Tellus, was melted down by order of the censors; for even in this respect, the men of those days took precautions against ambition.

There are still extant some declamations by Cato, during his censorship, against the practice of erecting statues of women in the Roman provinces. However, he could not prevent these statues being erected at Rome even; to Cornelia, for instance, the mother of the Gracchi, and daughter of the elder Scipio Africanus. She is represented in a sitting posture, and the statue is remarkable for having no straps to the shoes. This statue, which was formerly in the public Portico of Metellus, is now in the Buildings of Octavia.87


The first statue that was erected at Rome at the expense of a foreigner was that of C. Ælius, the tribune of the people, who had introduced a law against Sthennius Statilius Lucanus,88 for having twice attacked Thurii: on which account the inhabitants of that place presented Ælius with a statue and a golden crown. At a later period, the same people erected a statue to Fabricius,89 who had delivered their city from a state of siege. From time to time various nations thus placed themselves under the protection of the Romans; and all distinctions were thereby so effectually removed, that statues of Hannibal even are to be seen in three different places in that city, within the walls of which, he alone of all its enemies, had hurled his spear.90


Various circumstances prove, that the art of making statues was commonly practised in Italy at an early period. The statue in the Cattle Market91 is said to have been consecrated to Hercules by Evander; it is called the triumphal Hercules, and, on the occasion of triumphal processions, is arrayed in triumphal vestments. And then besides, King Numa dedicated the statue of the two-faced Janus;92 a deity who is worshipped as presiding over both peace and war. The fingers, too, are so formed as to indicate three hundred and sixty-five days,93 or in other words, the year; thus denoting that he is the god of time and duration.

There are also Etruscan statues dispersed in various parts of the world, which beyond a doubt were originally made in Etruria. I should have supposed that these had been the statues only of divinities, had not Metrodorus94 of Scepsis, who had his surname from his hatred to the Roman name,95 reproached us with having pillaged the city of Volsinii for the sake of the two thousand statues which it contained. It appears to me a singular fact. that although the origin of statues was of such great antiquity in Italy, the images of the gods, which were consecrated to them in their temples, should have been formed either of wood or of earthenware,96 until the conquest of Asia, which introduced luxury among us. It will be the best plan to enlarge upon the origin of the art of expressing likenesses, when we come to speak of what the Greeks call "plastice;"97 for the art of modelling was prior to that of statuary. This last, however, has flourished to such an extraordinary degree, that an account of it would fill many volumes, if we were desirous of making an extensive acquaintance with the subject: but as to learning everything connected with it, who could do it?


In the ædileship of M. Scaurus, there were three thousand statues erected on the stage of what was a temporary theatre98 only. Mummius, the conqueror of Achaia, filled the City with statues; he who at his death was destined not to leave a dowry to his daughter,99 for why not mention this as an apology for him? The Luculli100 also introduced many articles from abroad. Yet we learn from Mucianus,101 who was thrice consul, that there are still three thousand statues in Rhodes, and it is supposed that there are no fewer in existence at Athens, at Olympia, and at Delphi. What living mortal could enumerate them all? or of what utility would be such information? Still, however, I may, perhaps, afford amusement by giving some slight account of such of those works of art as are in any way remarkable, and stating the names of the more celebrated artists. Of each of these it would be impossible to enumerate all the productions, for Lysippus102 alone is said to have executed no less than fifteen hundred103 works of art, all of which were of such excellence that any one of them might have immortalized him. The number was ascertained by his heir, upon opening his coffers after his death, it having been his practice to lay up one golden denarius104 out of the sum which he had received as the price of each statue.

This art has arrived at incredible perfection, both in successfulness and in boldness of design. As a proof of successfulness, I will adduce one example, and that of a figure which represented neither god nor man. We have seen in our own time, in the Capitol, before it was last burnt by the party105 of Vitellius, in the shrine of Juno there, a bronze figure of a dog licking its wounds. Its miraculous excellence and its perfect truthfulness were not only proved by the circumstance of its having been consecrated there, but also by the novel kind of security that was taken for its safety; for, no sum appearing equal to its value, it was publicly enacted that the keepers of it should be answerable for its safety with their lives.


As to boldness of design, the examples are innumerable; for we see designed, statues of enormous bulk, known as colossal statues and equal to towers in size. Such, for instance, is the Apollo in the Capitol, which was brought by M. Lucullus from Apollonia, a city of Pontus,106 thirty cubits in height, and which cost five hundred talents: such, too, is the statue of Jupiter, in the Campus Martius, dedicated by the late Emperor Claudius, but which appears small in comparison from its vicinity to the Theatre of Pompeius: and such is that at Tarentum, forty cubits in height, and the work of Lysippus.107 It is a remarkable circumstance in this statue, that though, as it is stated, it is so nicely balanced as to be moveable by the hand, it has never been thrown down by a tempest. This indeed, the artist, it is said, has guarded against, by a column erected at a short distance from it, upon the side on which the violence of the wind required to be broken. On account, therefore, of its magnitude, and the great difficulty of moving it, Fabius Verrucosus108 did not touch it, when he transferred the Hercules from that place to the Capitol, where it now stands.

But that which is by far the most worthy of our admiration, is the colossal statue of the Sun, which stood formerly at Rhodes, and was the work of Chares the Lindian, a pupil of the above-named Lysippus;109 no less than seventy cubits in height. This statue fifty-six years after it was erected, was thrown down by an earthquake; but even as it lies, it excites our wonder and admiration.110 Few men can clasp the thumb in their arms, and its fingers are larger than most statues. Where the limbs are broken asunder, vast caverns are seen yawning in the interior. Within it, too, are to be seen large masses of rock, by the weight of which the artist steadied it while erecting it. It is said that it was twelve years before this statue was completed, and that three hundred talents were expended upon it; a sum raised from the engines of warfare which had been abandoned by King Demetrius,111 when tired of the long-protracted siege of Rhodes. In the same city there are other colossal statues, one hundred in number; but though smaller than the one already mentioned, wherever erected, they would, any one of them, have ennobled the place. In addition to these, there are five colossal statues of the gods, which were made by Bryaxis.112

Colossal statues used also to be made in Italy. At all events, we see the Tuscan Apollo, in the library of the Temple of Augustus,113 fifty feet in height from the toe; and it is a question whether it is more remarkable for the quality of the metal, or for the beauty of the workmanship. Spurius Carvilius also erected the statue of Jupiter which is seen in the Capitol, after he had conquered the Samnites,114 who fought in obedience to a most solemn oath; it being formed out of their breast-plates, greaves, and helmets, and of such large dimensions that it may be seen from the statue of Jupiter Latiaris.115 He made his own statue, which is at the feet of the other one, out of the filings of the metal. There are also, in the Capitol, two heads which are very much admired, and which were dedicated by the Consul P. Lentulus, one of them executed by the above-mentioned Chares,116 the other by Decius;117 but this last is so greatly excelled by the former, as to have all the appearance of being the work of one of the poorest of artists.

But all these gigantic statues of this kind have been surpassed in our own age by that of Mercury, made by Zenodotus118 for the city of the Arverni in Gaul,119 which was ten years in being completed, and the making of which cost four hundred thousand sesterces. Having given sufficient proof there of his artistic skill, he was sent for by Nero to Rome, where he made a colossal statue intended to represent that prince, one hundred and ten feet in height. In consequence, however, of the public detestation of Nero's crimes, this statue was consecrated to the Sun.120 We used to admire in his studio, not only the accurate likeness in the model of clay, but in the small sketches121 also, which served as the first foundation of the work. This statue proves that the art of fusing [precious] brass was then lost, for Nero was prepared to furnish the requisite gold and silver, and Zenodotus was inferior to none of the ancients, either as a designer or as an engraver.122 At the time that he was working at the statue for the Arverni, he copied for Dubius Avitus, the then governor of the province, two drinking-cups, chased by the hand of Calamis,123 which had been highly prized by Germanicus Cæsar, and had been given by him to his preceptor Cassius Silanus, the uncle of Avitus; and this with such exactness, that they could scarcely be distinguished from the originals. The greater, then, the superiority of Zenodotus, the more certainly it may be concluded that the secret of fusing [precious] brass is lost.

(8.) Persons who possess what are called Corinthian bronzes,124 are generally so much enamoured of them, as to carry them about with them from place to place; Hortensius, the orator, for instance, who possessed a Sphinx, which he had made Verres give him, when accused. It was to this figure that Cicero alluded, in an altercation which took place at the trial: when, upon Hortensius saying that he could not understand enigmas, Cicero made answer that he ought to understand them, as he had got a Sphinx125 at home. The Emperor Nero, also, used to carry about with him the figure of an Amazon, of which I shall speak further hereafter;126 and, shortly before this, C. Cestius, a person of consular127 rank, had possessed a figure, which he carried with him even in battle. The tent, too, of Alexander the Great was usually supported, it is said, by statues, two of which are consecrated before the Temple of Mars Ultor,128 and a similar number before the Palace.129


An almost innumerable multitude of artists have been rendered famous by their statues and figures of smaller size. Before all others is Phidias,130 the Athenian, who executed the Jupiter at Olympia, in ivory and gold,131 but who also made figures in brass as well. He flourished in the eighty-third Olympiad, about the year of our City, 300. To the same age belong also his rivals Alcamenes,132 Critias,133 Nesiotes,134 and Hegias.135 Afterwards, in the eighty-seventh Olympiad, there were Agelades,136 Callon,137 and Gorgias the Laconian. In the ninetieth Olympiad there were Polycletus,138 Phradmon,139 Myron,140 Pythagoras,141 Scopas,142 and Perellus.143 Of these, Polycletus had for pupils, Argius,144 Asopodorus, Alexis, Aristides,145 Phrynon, Dinon, Athenodorus,146 and Demeas147 the Clitorian: Lycius,148 too, was the pupil of Myron. In the ninety-fifth Olympiad flourished Naucsydes,149 Dinomenes,150 Canachus,151 and Patroclus.152 In the hundred and second Olympiad there were Polycles,153 Cephisodotus,154 Leochares,155 and Hypatodorus.156 In the hundred and fourth Olympiad, flourished Praxiteles157 and Euphranor;158 in the hundred and seventh, Aëtion159 and Therimachus;160 in the hundred and thirteenth, Lysippus,161 who was the contemporary of Alexander the Great, his brother Lysistratus,162 Sthennis,163 Euphron, Eucles, Sostratus,164 Ion, and Silanion,165 who was remarkable for having acquired great celebrity without any instructor: Zeuxis166 was his pupil. In the hundred and twenty-first Olympiad were Eutychides,167 Euthycrates,168 Laïppus,169 Cephisodotus,170 Timarchus,171 and Pyromachus.172

The practice of this art then ceased for some time, but revived in the hundred and fifty-sixth Olympiad, when there were some artists, who, though far inferior to those already mentioned, were still highly esteemed; Antæus, Callistratus,173 Polycles,174 Athenæus,175 Callixenus, Pythocles, Pythias, and Timocles.176

The ages of the most celebrated artists being thus distinguished, I shall cursorily review the more eminent of them, the greater part being mentioned in a desultory manner. The most celebrated of these artists, though born at different epochs, have joined in a trial of skill in the Amazons which they have respectively made. When these statues were dedicated in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, it was agreed, in order to ascertain which was the best, that it should be left to the judgment of the artists themselves who were then present: upon which, it was evident that that was the best, which all the artists agreed in considering as the next best to his own. Accordingly, the first rank was assigned to Polycletus, the second to Phidias, the third to Cresilas, the fourth to Cydon, and the fifth to Phradmon.177

Phidias, besides the Olympian Jupiter, which no one has ever equalled, also executed in ivory the erect statue of Minerva, which is in the Parthenon at Athens.178 He also made in brass, beside the Amazon above mentioned,179 a Minerva, of such exquisite beauty, that it received its name from its fine proportions.180 He also made the Cliduchus,181 and another Minerva, which Paulus Æmilius dedicated at Rome in the Temple of Fortune182 of the passing day. Also the two statues, draped with the pallium, which Catulus erected in the same temple; and a nude colossal statue. Phidias is deservedly considered to have discovered and developed the toreutic art.183

Polycletus of Sicyon,184 the pupil of Agelades, executed the Diadumenos,185 the statue of an effeminate youth, and remarkable for having cost one hundred talents; as also the statue of a youth full of manly vigour, and called the Doryphoros.186 He also made what the artists have called the Model statue,187 and from which, as from a sort of standard, they study the lineaments: so that he, of all men, is thought in one work of art to have exhausted all the resources of art. He also made statues of a man using the body-scraper,188 and of a naked man challenging to play at dice;189 as also of two naked boys playing at dice, and known as the Astragalizontes;190 they are now in the atrium of the Emperor Titus, and it is generally considered, that there can be no work more perfect than this. He also executed a Mercury, which was formerly at Lysimachia; a Hercules Ageter,191 seizing his arms, which is now at Rome; and an Artemon, which has received the name of Periphoretos.192 Polycletus is generally considered as having attained the highest excellence in statuary, and as having perfected the toreutic193 art, which Phidias invented. A discovery which was entirely his own, was the art of placing statues on one leg. It is remarked, however, by Varro, that his statues are all square-built,194 and made very much after the same model.195

Myron of Eleutheræ,196 who was also the pupil of Agelades, was rendered more particularly famous by his statue of a heifer,197 celebrated in many well-known lines: so true is it, that most men owe their renown more to the genius of others, than to their own. He also made the figure of a dog,198 a Discobolus,199 a Perseus,200 the Pristæ,201 a Satyr202 admiring a flute, and a Minerva, the Delphic Pentathletes,203 the Pancratiastæ,204 and a Hercules,205 which is at the Circus Maximus, in the house of Pompeius Magnus. Erinna,206 in her poems,207 makes allusion to a monument which he erected to a cricket and a locust. He also executed the Apollo, which, after being taken from the Ephesians by the Triumvir Antonius, was restored by the Emperor Augustus, he having been admonished to do so in a dream. Myron appears to have been the first to give a varied development to the art,208 having made a greater number of designs than Polycletus, and shewn more attention to symmetry. And yet, though he was very accurate in the proportions of his figures, he has neglected to give expression; besides which, he has not treated the hair and the pubes with any greater attention than is observed in the rude figures of more ancient times.

Pythagoras of Rhegium, in Italy, excelled him in the figure of the Pancratiast209 which is now at Delphi, and in which he also surpassed Leontiscus.210 Pythagoras also executed the statue of Astylos,211 the runner, which is exhibited at Olympia; that of a Libyan boy holding a tablet, also in the same place; and a nude male figure holding fruit. There is at Syracuse a figure of a lame man by him: persons, when looking at it, seem to feel the very pain of his wound. He also made an Apollo, with the serpent212 pierced by his arrows; and a Player on the Lyre, known as the Dicæus,213 from the fact that, when Thebes was taken by Alexander the Great, a fugitive successfully concealed in its bosom a sum of gold. He was the first artist who gave expression to the sinews and the veins, and paid more attention to the hair.

There was also another Pythagoras, a Samian,214 who was originally a painter, seven of whose nude figures, in the Temple of Fortune of the passing day,215 and one of an aged man, are very much admired. He is said to have resembled the last-mentioned artist so much in his features, that they could not be distinguished. Sostratus, it is said, was the pupil of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and his sister's son.

According to Duris,216 Lysippus the Sicyonian was not the pupil217 of any one, but was originally a worker in brass, and was first prompted to venture upon statuary by an answer that was given by Eupompus the painter; who, upon being asked which of his predecessors he proposed to take for his model, pointed to a crowd of men, and replied that it was Nature herself, and no artist, that he proposed to imitate. As already mentioned,218 Lysippus was most prolific in his works, and made more statues than any other artist. Among these, is the Man using the Body-scraper, which Marcus Agrippa had erected in front of his Warm Baths,219 and which wonderfully pleased the Emperor Tiberius. This prince, although in the beginning of his reign he imposed some restraint upon himself, could not resist the temptation, and had this statue removed to his bed-chamber, having substituted another for it at the baths: the people, however, were so resolutely opposed to this, that at the theatre they clamourously demanded the Apoxyomenos220 to be replaced; and the prince, notwithstanding his attachment to it, was obliged to restore it.

Lysippus is also celebrated for his statue of the intoxicated Female Flute-player, his dogs and huntsmen, and, more particularly, for his Chariot with the Sun, as represented by the Rhodians.221 He also executed a numerous series of statues of Alexander the Great, commencing from his childhood.222 The Emperor Nero was so delighted with his statue of the infant Alexander, that he had it gilt: this addition, however, to its value, so detracted from its artistic beauty that the gold was removed, and in this state it was looked upon as still more precious, though disfigured by the scratches and seams which remained upon it, and in which the gold was still to be seen.223 He also made the statue of Hephæstion, the friend of Alexander the Great, which some persons attribute to Polycletus, whereas that artist lived nearly a century before his time.224 Also, the statue of Alexander at the chase, now consecrated at Delphi, the figure of a Satyr, now at Athens, and the Squadron 225 of Alexander,226 all of whom he represented with the greatest accuracy. This last work of art, after his conquest of Macedonia,227 Metellus conveyed to Rome. Lysippus also executed chariots of various kinds. He is considered to have contributed very greatly to the art of statuary by expressing the details of the hair,228 and by making the head smaller than had been done by the ancients, and the body more graceful and less bulky, a method by which his statues were made to appear taller. The Latin language has no appropriate name for that "symmetry,"229 which he so attentively observed in his new and hitherto untried method of modifying the squareness observable in the ancient statues. Indeed, it was a common saying of his, that other artists made men as they actually were, while he made them as they appeared to be. One peculiar characteristic of his work, is the finish and minuteness which are observed in even the smallest details. Lysippus left three sons, who were also his pupils, and became celebrated as artists, Laippus, Bœdas, and, more particularly, Euthycrates; though this last-named artist rivalled his father in precision rather than in elegance, and preferred scrupulous correctness to gracefulness. Nothing can be more expressive than his Hercules at Delphi, his Alexander, his Hunter at Thespiæ, and his Equestrian Combat. Equally good, too, are his statue of Trophonius, erected in the oracular cave230 of that divinity, his numerous chariots, his Horse with the Panniers,231 and his hounds.

Tisicrates, also a native of Sicyon, was a pupil of Euthycrates, but more nearly approaching the style of Lysippus; so much so, that several of his statues can scarcely be distinguished from those of Lysippus; his aged Theban, for example, his King Demetrius, and his Peucestes, who saved the life of Alexander the Great, and so rendered himself deserving of this honour.232

Artists, who have transmitted these details in their works, bestow wonderful encomiums upon Telephanes, the Phocæan, a statuary but little known, they say, because he lived in Thessaly, where his works remained concealed; according to their account, however, he is quite equal to Polycletus, Myron, and Pythagoras. They more particularly commend his Larissa, his Spintharus, the pentathlete,233 and his Apollo. Others, however, assign another reason for his being so little known; it being owing, they think, to his having devoted himself to the studios established by Kings Xerxes and Darius.

Praxiteles, who excelled more particularly in marble, and thence acquired his chief celebrity, also executed some very beautiful works in brass, the Rape of Proserpine, the Catagusa,234 a Father Liber,235 a figure of Drunkenness, and the celebrated Satyr,236 to the Greeks known as "Periboetos."237 He also executed the statues, which were formerly before the Temple238 of Good Fortune, and the Venus, which was destroyed by fire, with the Temple of that goddess, in the reign of Claudius, and was considered equal to his marble statue of Venus,239 so celebrated throughout the world. He also executed a Stephanusa,240 a Spilumene,241 an Œnophorus,242 and two figures of Harmodius and Aristogiton, who slew the tyrants; which last, having been taken away from Greece by Xerxes, were restored to the Athenians on the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great.243 He also made the youthful Apollo, known as the "Sauroctonos,"244 because he is aiming an arrow at a lizard which is stealing towards him. There are greatly admired, also, two statues of his, expressive of contrary emotions—a Matron in tears, and a Courtesan full of gaiety: this last is supposed to be a likeness of Phryne, and it is said that we can detect in her figure the love of the artist, and in the countenance of the courtesan the promised reward.245

His kindness of heart, too, is witnessed by another figure; for in a chariot and horses which had been executed by Calamis,246 he himself made the charioteer, in order that the artist, who excelled in the representation of horses, might not be considered deficient in the human figure. This last-mentioned artist has executed other chariots also, some with four horses, and some with two; and in his horses he is always unrivalled. But that it may not be supposed that he was so greatly inferior in his human figures, it is as well to remark that his Alcmena247 is equal to any that was ever produced.

Alcamenes,248 who was a pupil of Phidias, worked in marble and executed a Pentathlete in brass, known as the "Encrinomenos."249 Aristides, too, who was the scholar of Polycletus, executed chariots in metal with four and two horses. The Leæna250 of Amphicrates251 is highly commended. The courtesan252 Leæna, who was a skilful performer on the lyre, and had so become acquainted with Harmodius and Aristogiton, submitted to be tortured till she expired, rather than betray their plot for the extermination of the tyrants.253 The Athenians, being desirous of honouring her memory, without at the same time rendering homage to a courtesan, had her represented under the figure of the animal whose name she bore;254 and, in order to indicate the cause of the honour thus paid her, ordered the artist to represent the animal without a tongue.255

Bryaxis executed in brass statues of Æsculapius and Seleucus;256 Bœdas257 a figure in adoration; Baton, an Apollo and a Juno, which are in the Temple of Concord258 at Rome.

Ctesilaüs259 executed a statue of a man fainting from his wounds, in the expression of which may be seen how little life remains;260 as also the Olympian Pericles,261 well worthy of its title: indeed, it is one of the marvellous adjuncts of this art, that it renders men who are already celebrated even more so.

Cephisodotus262 is the artist of an admirable Minerva, now erected in the port of Athens; as also of the altar before the Temple of Jupiter Servator,263 at the same place, to which, indeed, few works are comparable.

Canachus264 executed a nude Apollo, which is known as the "Philesian:"265 it is at Didymi,266 and is composed of bronze that was fused at Ægina. He also made a stag with it, so nicely poised on its hoofs, as to admit of a thread being passed beneath. One267 fore-foots, too, and the alternate hind-foot are so made as firmly to grip the base, the socket being268 so indented on either side, as to admit of the figure being thrown at pleasure upon alternate feet. Another work of his was the boys known as the "Celetizontes."269

Chæreas made statues of Alexander the Great and of his father Philip. Desilaüs270 made a Doryphoros271 and a wounded Amazon; and Demetrius272 a statue of Lysimache, who was priestess of Minerva sixty-four years. This statuary also made the Minerva, which has the name of Musica,273 and so called because the dragons on its Gorgon's head vibrate at the sound of the lyre; also an equestrian statue of Simon, the first writer on the art of equitation.274 Dædalus,275 who is highly esteemed as a modeller in clay, made two brazen figures of youths using the body-scraper;276 and Dinomenes executed figures of Protesilaüs277 and Pythodemus the wrestler.

The statue of Alexander Paris is the work of Euphranor:278 it is much admired, because we recognize in it, at the same moment, all these characteristics; we see him as the umpire between the goddesses, the paramour of Helen, and yet the slayer of Achilles. We have a Minerva, too, by Euphranor, at Rome, known as the "Catulina," and dedicated below the Capitol, by Q. Lutatius;279 also a figure of Good Success,280 holding in the right hand a patera, and in the left an ear of corn and a poppy. There is also a Latona by him, in the Temple of Concord,281 with the new-born infants Apollo and Diana in her arms. He also executed some brazen chariots with four and two horses, and a Cliduchus282 of beautiful proportions; as also two colossal statues, one representing Virtue, the other Greece;283 and a figure of a female lost in wonder and adoration: with statues of Alexander and Philip in chariots with four horses. Eutychides executed an emblematic figure of the Eurotas,284 of which it has been frequently remarked, that the work of the artist appears more flowing than the waters even of the river.285

Hegias286 is celebrated for his Minerva and his King Pyrrhus, his youthful Celetizontes,287 and his statues of Castor and Pollux, before the Temple of Jupiter Tonans:288 Hegesias,289 for his Hercules, which is at our colony of Parium.290 Of Isidotus we have the Buthytes.291

Lycius was the pupil292 of Myron: he made a figure representing a boy blowing a nearly extinguished fire, well worthy of his master, as also figures of the Argonauts. Leochares made a bronze representing the eagle carrying off Ganymede: the eagle has all the appearance of being sensible of the importance of his burden, and for whom he is carrying it, being careful not to injure the youth with his talons, even through the garments.293 He executed a figure, also, of Autolycus,294 who had been victorious in the contests of the Pancratium, and for whom Xenophon wrote his Symposium;295 the figure, also, of Jupiter Tonans in the Capitol, the most admired of all his works; and a statue of Apollo crowned with a diadem. He executed, also, a figure of Lyciscus, and one of the boy Lagon,296 full of the archness and low-bred cunning of the slave. Lycius also made a figure of a boy burning perfumes.

We have a young bull by Menæchmus,297 pressed down beneath a man's knee, with its neck bent back:298 this Menæch- mus has also written a treatise on his art. Naucydes299 is admired for a Mercury, a Discobolus,300 and a Man sacrificing a Ram. Naucerus made a figure of a wrestler panting for breath; Niceratus, an Æsculapius and Hygeia,301 which are in the Temple of Concord at Rome. Pyromachus represented Alcibiades, managing a chariot with four horses: Polycles made a splendid statue of Hermaphroditus; Pyrrhus, statues of Hygeia and Minerva; and Phanis, who was a pupil of Lysippus, an Epithyusa.302

Stypax of Cyprus acquired his celebrity by a single work, the statue of the Splanchnoptes;303 which represents a slave of the Olympian Pericles, roasting entrails and kindling the fire with his breath. Silanion made a statue in metal of Apollodorus, who was himself a modeller, and not only the most diligent of all in the study of this art, but a most severe criticizer of his own works, frequently breaking his statues to pieces when he had finished them, and never able to satisfy his intense passion for the art—a circumstance which procured him the surname of "the Madman." Indeed, it is this expression which he has given to his works, which represent in metal embodied anger rather than the lineaments of a human being. The Achilles, also, of Silanion is very excellent, and his Epistates304 exercising the Athletes. Strongylion305 made a figure of an Amazon, which, from the beauty of the legs, was known as the "Eucnemos,"306 and which Nero used to have carried about with him in his travels. Strongylion was the artist, also, of a youthful figure, which was so much admired by Brutus of Philippi, that it received from him its surname.307

Theodorus of Samos,308 who constructed the Labyrinth,309 cast his own statue in brass; which was greatly admired, not only for its resemblance, but for the extreme delicacy of the work. In the right hand he holds a file, and with three fingers of the left, a little model of a four-horse chariot, which has since been transferred to Præneste:310 it is so extremely minute, that the whole piece, both chariot and charioteer, may be covered by the wings of a fly, which he also made with it.

Xenocrates311 was the pupil of Ticrates, or, as some say, of Euthycrates: he surpassed them both, however, in the number of his statues, and was the author of some treatises on his art.

Several artists have represented the battles fought by Attalus and Eumenes with the Galli;312 Isigonus, for instance, Pyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus,313 who also wrote some works in reference to his art. Boëthus,314 although more celebrated for his works in silver, has executed a beautiful figure of a child strangling a goose. The most celebrated of all the works, of which I have here spoken, have been dedicated, for some time past, by the Emperor Vespasianus in the Temple of Peace,315 and other public buildings of his. They had before been forcibly carried off by Nero,316 and brought to Rome, and arranged by him in the reception-rooms of his Golden Palace.317

In addition to these, there are several other artists, of about equal celebrity, but none of whom have produced any first-rate works; Ariston,318 who was principally employed in chasing silver, Callides, Ctesias, Cantharus of Sicyon,319 Diodorus, a pupil of Critias, Deliades, Euphorion, Eunicus,320 and Hecatæus,321 all of them chasers in silver; Lesbocles, also, Prodorus, Pythodicus, and Polygnotus,322 one of the most celebrated painters; also two other chasers in silver, Stratonicus,323 and Scymnus, a pupil of Critias.

I shall now enumerate those artists who have executed works of the same class:—Apollodorus,324 for example, Antrobulus, Asclepiodorus, and Aleuas, who have executed statues of philosophers. Apellas325 has left us some figures of females in the act of adoration; Antignotus, a Perixyomenos,326 and figures of the Tyrannicides, already mentioned. Antimachus and Athenodorus made some statues of females of noble birth; Aristodemus327 executed figures of wrestlers, two-horse chariots with the charioteers, philosophers, aged women, and a statue of King Seleucus:328 his Doryphoros,329 too, possesses his characteristic gracefulness.

There were two artists of the name of Cephisodotus:330 the earlier of them made a figure of Mercury nursing Father Liber331 when an infant; also of a man haranguing, with the hand elevated, the original of which is now unknown. The younger Cephisodotus executed statues of philosophers. Colotes,332 who assisted Phidias in the Olympian Jupiter, also executed statues of philosophers; the same, too, with Cleon,333 Cenchramis, Callicles,334 and Cepis. Chalcosthenes made statues of comedians and athletes. Daïppus335 executed a Perixyomenos.336 Daïphron, Democritus,337 and Dæmon made statues of philosophers.

Epigonus, who has attempted nearly all the above-named classes of works, has distinguished himself more particularly by his Trumpeter, and his Child in Tears, caressing its murdered mother. The Woman in Admiration, of Eubulus, is highly praised; and so is the Man, by Eubulides,338 reckoning on his Fingers. Micon339 is admired for his athletes; Menogenes, for his four-horse chariots. Niceratus,340 too, who attempted every kind of work that had been executed by any other artist, made statues of Aleibiades and of his mother Demarate,341 who is represented sacrificing by the light of torches.

Tisicrates342 executed a two-horse chariot in brass, in which Piston afterwards placed the figure of a female. Piston also made the statues of Mars and Mercury, which are in the Temple of Concord at Rome. No one can commend Perillus;343 more cruel even than the tyrant Phalaris344 himself, he made for him a brazen bull, asserting that when a man was enclosed in it, and fire applied beneath, the cries of the man would resemble the roaring of a bull: however, with a cruelty in this instance marked by justice, the experiment of this torture was first tried upon himself. To such a degree did this man degrade the art of representing gods and men, an art more adapted than any other to refine the feelings! Surely so many persons had not toiled to perfect it in order to make it an instrument of torture! Hence it is that the works of Perillus are only preserved, in order that whoever sees them, may detest the hands that made them.

Sthennis345 made the statues of Ceres, Jupiter, and Minerva, which are now in the Temple of Concord; also figures of matrons weeping, adoring, and offering sacrifice; Simon346 executed figures of a dog and an archer. Stratonicus,347 the chaser in silver, made some figures of philosophers; and so did both of the artists named Scopas.348

The following artists have made statues of athletes, armed men, hunters, and sacrificers—Baton,349 Euchir,350 Glaucides,351 Heliodorus,352 Hicanus, Leophon, Lyson,353 Leon, Menodorus,354 Myagrus,355 Polycrates, Polyidus,356 Pythocritus, Protogenes, a famous painter, whom we shall have occasion to mention hereafter;357 Patrocles, Pollis, Posidonius358 the Ephesian, who was also a celebrated chaser in silver; Periclymenus,359 Philon,360 Symenus, Timotheus,361 Theomnestus,362 Timarchides,363 Timon, Tisias, and Thrason.364

But of all these, Callimachus is the most remarkable, on account of his surname. Being always dissatisfied with himself, and continually correcting his works, he obtained the name of "Catatexitechnos;"365 thus affording a memorable example of the necessity of observing moderation even in carefulness. His Laconian Female Dancers, for instance, is a most correct performance, but one in which, by extreme correctness, he has effaced all gracefulness. It has been said, too, that Callimachus was a painter also. Cato, in his expedition against Cyprus,366 sold all the statues that he found there, with the exception of one of Zeno; in which case he was influenced, neither by the value of the metal nor by its excellence as a work of art, but by the fact that it was the statue of a philosopher. I only mention this circumstance casually, that an example367 so little followed, may be known.

While speaking of statues, there is one other that should not be omitted, although its author is unknown, that of Her- cules clothed in a tunic,368 the only one represented in that costume in Rome: it stands near the Rostra, and the countenance is stern and expressive of his last agonies, caused by that dress. There are three inscriptions on it; the first of which states that it had formed part of the spoil obtained by L. Lucullus369 the general; the second, that his son, while still a minor, dedicated in accordance with a decree of the Senate; the third, that T. Septimius Sabinus, the curule ædile, had it restored to the public from the hands of a private individual. So vast has been the rivalry caused by this statue, and so high the value set upon it.


We will now return to the different kinds of copper, and its several combinations. In Cyprian copper we have the kind known as "coronarium,"370 and that called "regulare,"371 both of them ductile. The former is made into thin leaves, and, after being coloured with ox-gall,372 is used for what has all the appearance of gilding on the coronets worn upon the stage. The same substance, if mixed with gold, in the proportion of six scruples of gold to the ounce, and reduced into thin plates, acquires a fiery red colour, and is termed "pyropus."373 In other mines again, they prepare the kind known as "regulare," as also that which is called "caldarium."374 These differ from each other in this respect, that, in the latter, the metal is only fused, and breaks when struck with the hammer, whereas the "regulare" is malleable, or ductile,375 as some call it, a property which belongs naturally to all the copper of Cyprus. In the case, however, of all the other mines, this difference between bar copper and cast brass is produced by artificial means. All the ores, in fact, will produce bar or malleable copper when sufficiently melted and purified by heat. Among the other kinds of copper, the palm of excellence is awarded to that of Campania,376 which is the most esteemed for vessels and utensils. This last is prepared several ways. At Capua it is melted upon fires made with wood, and not coals, after which it is sprinkled with cold water and cleansed through a sieve made of oak. After being thus smelted a number of times, Spanish silver-lead is added to it, in the proportion of ten pounds of lead to one hundred pounds of copper; a method by which it is rendered pliable, and made to assume that agreeable colour which is imparted to other kinds of copper by the application of oil and the action of the sun. Many parts, however, of Italy, and the provinces, produce a similar kind of metal; but there they add only eight pounds of lead, and, in consequence of the scarcity of wood, melt it several times over upon coals. It is in Gaul more particularly, where the ore is melted between red-hot stones, that the difference is to be seen that is produced by these variations in the method of smelting. Indeed, this last method scorches the metal, and renders it black and friable. Besides, they only melt it twice; whereas, the oftener this operation is repeated, the better in quality it becomes.

(9.) It is also as well to remark that all copper fuses best when the weather is intensely cold. The proper combination for making statues and tablets is as follows: the ore is first melted; after which there is added to the molten metal one third part of second-hand377 copper, or in other words, copper that has been in use and bought up for the purpose. For it is a peculiarity of this metal that when it has been some time in use, and has been subject to long-continued friction, it becomes seasoned, and subdued, as it were, to a high polish. Twelve pounds and a half of silver-lead are then added to every hundred pounds of the fused metal. There is also a combination of copper, of a most delicate nature, "mould-copper,"378 as it is called; there being added to the metal one tenth part of lead379 and one twentieth of silver-lead, this combination being the best adapted for taking the colour known as "Græcanicus."380 The last kind is that known as "ollaria,"381 from the vessels that are made of it: in this combination three or four pounds of silver-lead382 are added to every hundred pounds of copper. By the addition of lead to Cyprian copper, the purple tint is produced that we see upon the drapery of statues.


Copper becomes covered with verdigris more quickly when cleaned than when neglected, unless it is well rubbed with oil. It is said that the best method of preserving it is with a coating of tar. The custom of making use of copper for monuments, which are intended to be perpetuated, is of very ancient date: it is upon tablets of brass that our public enactments are engraved.

CHAP. 22. (10.)—CADMIA.

The ores of copper furnish a number of resources383 that are employed in medicine; indeed, all kinds of ulcers are healed thereby with great rapidity. Of these, however, the most useful is cadmia.384 This substance is formed artificially, beyond a doubt, in the furnaces, also, where they smelt silver, but it is whiter and not so heavy, and by no means to be compared with that from copper. There are several kinds of it. For, as the mineral itself, from which it is prepared artificially, so necessary in fusing copper ore, and so useful in medicine, has the name of "cadmia,"385 so also is it found in the smelting-furnaces, where it receives other names, according to the way in which it is formed. By the action of the flame and the blast, the more attenuated parts of the metal are separated, and become attached, in proportion to their lightness, to the arched top and sides of the furnace. These flakes are the thinnest near the exterior opening of the furnace, where the flame finds a vent, the substance being called "capnitis;"386 from its burnt appearance and its extreme lightness it resembles white ashes. The best is that which is found in the interior, hanging from the arches of the chimney, and from its form and position named "botryitis."387 It is heavier than the first-mentioned kind, but lighter than those which follow. It is of two different colours: the least valuable is ash-coloured, the better kind being red, friable, and extremely useful as a remedy for affections of the eyes.

A third kind of cadmia is that found on the sides of the furnace, and which, in consequence of its weight, could not reach the arched vaults of the chimney. This species is called "placitis,"388 in reference to its solid appearance, it presenting a plane surface more like a solid crust than pumice, and mottled within. Its great use is, for the cure of itch-scab, and for making wounds cicatrize. Of this last there are two varieties, the "onychitis," which is almost entirely blue on the exterior, and spotted like an onyx within; and the "ostracitis,"389 which is quite black and more dirty than the others, but particularly useful for healing wounds. All the species of cadmia are of the best quality from the furnaces of Cyprus. When used in medicine it is heated a second time upon a fire of pure charcoal, and when duly incinerated, is quenched in Aminean390 wine, if required for making plasters, but in vinegar, if wanted for the cure of itch-scab. Some persons first pound it, and then burn it in earthen pots; which done, they wash it in mortars and then dry it.

Nymphodorus391 recommends that the most heavy and dense pieces of mineral cadmia that can be procured, should be burnt upon hot coals and quenched in Chian wine; after which, it must be pounded and then sifted through a linen cloth. It is then pulverized in a mortar and macerated in rain water, the sediment being again pounded until it is reduced to the consistency of ceruse, and presents no grittiness to the teeth. Iollas392 recommends the same process; except that he selects the purest specimens of native cadmia.


Cadmia393 acts as a desiccative, heals wounds, arrests discharges, acts detergently upon webs and foul incrustations of the eyes, removes eruptions, and produces, in fact, all the good effects which we shall have occasion to mention when speaking of lead. Copper too, itself, when calcined, is employed for all these purposes; in addition to which it is used for white spots and cicatrizations upon the eyes. Mixed with milk, it is curative also of ulcers upon the eyes; for which purpose, the people in Egypt make a kind of eye-salve by grinding it upon whet stones. Taken with honey, it acts as an emetic. For these purposes, Cyprian copper is calcined in unbaked earthen pots, with an equal quantity of sulphur; the apertures of the vessel being well luted, and it being left in the furnace until the vessel itself has become completely hardened. Some persons add salt, and others substitute alum394 for sulphur; others, again, add nothing, but merely sprinkle the copper with vinegar. When calcined, it is pounded in a mortar of Thebaic stone,395 after which it is washed with rain water, and then pounded with a large quantity of water, and left to settle. This process is repeated until the deposit has gained the appearance of minium;396 after which it is dried in the sun, and put by for keeping in a box made of copper.


The scoria, too, of copper is washed in the same manner; but the action of it is less efficacious than that of copper itself. The flower, too, of copper397 is also used in medicine; a substance which is procured by fusing copper, and then removing it into another furnace, where the repeated action of the bellows makes the metal separate into small scales, like the husks of millet, and known as "flower of copper." These scales are also separated, when the cakes of metal are plunged into water: they become red, too, like the scales of copper known as "lepis,"398 by means of which the genuine flower of copper is adulterated, it being also sold under that name. This last is made by hammering nails that are forged from the cakes of metal. All these processes are principally carried on in the furnaces of Cyprus; the great difference between these substances being, that this lepis is detached from the cakes by hammering, whereas the flower falls off spontaneously.


There is another finer kind of scale which is detached from the surface of the metal, like a very fine down, and known as "stomoma."399 But of all these substances, and even of their names, the physicians, if I may venture so to say, are quite ignorant, as appears by the names they give them; so unacquainted are they with the preparation of medicaments, a thing that was formerly considered the most essential part of their profession.400 At the present day, whenever they happen to find a book of recipes, if they wish to make any composition from these substances, or, in other words, to make trial of the prescription at the expense of their unhappy patients, they trust entirely to the druggists,401 who spoil everything by their fraudulent adulterations. For this long time past, they have even purchased their plasters and eye-salves ready made, and the consequence is, that the spoiled or adulterated wares in the druggists' shops are thus got rid of.

Both lepis and flower of copper are calcined in shallow earthen or brazen pans; after which they are washed, as described above,402 and employed for the same purposes; in addition to which, they are used for excrescences in the nostrils and in the anus, as also for dullness of the hearing, being forcibly blown into the ears through a tube. Incorporated with meal, they are applied to swellings of the uvula, and, with honey, to swellings of the tonsils. The scales prepared from white copper are much less efficacious than those from Cyprian copper. Sometimes they first macerate the nails and cakes of copper in a boy's urine; and in some instances, they pound the scales, when detached, and wash them in rain water. They are then given to dropsical patients, in doses of two drachmæ, with one semisextarius of honied wine: they are also made into a liniment with fine flour.


Verdigris403 is also applied to many purposes, and is prepared in numerous ways. Sometimes it is detached already formed, from the mineral from which copper is smelted: and sometimes it is made by piercing holes in white copper, and suspending it over strong vinegar in casks, which are closed with covers; it being much superior if scales of copper are used for the purpose. Some persons plunge vessels themselves, made of white copper, into earthen pots filled with vinegar, and scrape them at the end of ten days. Others, again, cover the vessels with husks of grapes,404 and scrape them in the same way, at the end of ten days. Others sprinkle vinegar upon copper filings, and stir them frequently with a spatula in the course of the day, until they are completely dissolved. Others prefer triturating these filings with vinegar in a brazen mortar: but the most expeditious method of all is to add to the vinegar shavings of coronet copper.405 Rhodian verdigris, more particularly, is adulterated with pounded marble; some persons use pumice-stone or gum.

The adulteration, however, which is the most difficult to detect, is made with copperas;406 the other sophistications being detected by the crackling of the substance when bitten with the teeth. The best mode of testing it is by using an iron fire-shovel; for when thus subjected to the fire, if pure, the verdigris retains its colour, but if mixed with copperas, it becomes red. The fraud may also be detected by using a leaf of papyrus, which has been steeped in an infusion of nut-galls; for it becomes black immediately upon the genuine verdigris being applied. It may also be detected by the eye; the green colour being unpleasant to the sight. But whether it is pure or adulterated, the best method is first to wash and dry it, and then to burn it in a new earthen vessel, turning it over until it is reduced to an ash;407 after which it is pounded and put by for use. Some persons calcine it in raw earthen vessels, until the earthenware becomes thoroughly baked: others again add to it male frankincense.408 Verdigris is washed, too, in the same manner as cadmia.

It affords a most useful ingredient for eye-salves, and from its mordent action is highly beneficial for watery humours of the eyes. It is necessary, however, to wash the part with warm water, applied with a fine sponge, until its mordency is no longer felt.


"Hieracium"409 is the name given to an eye-salve, which is essentially composed of the following ingredients; four ounces of sal ammoniac, two of Cyprian verdigris, the same quantity of the kind of copperas which is called "chalcanthum,"410 one ounce of misy411 and six of saffron; all these substances being pounded together with Thasian vinegar and made up into pills. It is an excellent remedy for incipient glaucoma and cataract, as also for films upon the eyes, eruptions, albugo, and diseases of the eye-lids. Verdigris, in a crude state, is also used as an ingredient in plasters for wounds. In combination with oil, it is wonderfully efficacious for ulcerations of the mouth and gums, and for sore lips. Used in the form of a cerate, it acts detergently upon ulcers, and promotes their cicatrization. Verdigris also consumes the callosities of fistulas and excrescences about the anus, either used by itself, applied with sal ammoniac, or inserted in the fistula in the form of a salve. The same substance, kneaded with one third part of resin of turpentine, removes leprosy.


There is another kind of verdigris also, which is called "scolex."412 It is prepared by triturating in a mortar of Cyprian copper, alum and salt, or an equal quantity of nitre, with the very strongest white vinegar. This preparation is only made during the hottest days of the year, about the rising of the Dog-star. The whole is triturated until it becomes green, and assumes the appearance of small worms, to which it owes its name. This repulsive form is corrected by mixing the urine of a young child, with twice the quantity of vinegar. Scolex is used for the same medicinal purposes as santerna, which we have described as being used for soldering gold,413 and they have, both of them, the same properties as verdigris. Native scolex is also procured by scraping the copper ore of which we are about to speak.


Chalcitis414 is the name of a mineral, from which, as well as cadmia, copper is extracted by heat. It differs from cadmia in this respect, that this last is procured from beds below the surface, while chalcitis is detached from rocks that are exposed to the air. Chalcitis also becomes immediately friable, being naturally so soft as to have the appearance of a compressed mass of down. There is also this other distinction between them, that chalcitis is a composition of three other substances, copper, misy, and sory,415 of which last we shall speak in their appropriate places.416 The veins of copper which it contains are oblong. The most approved kind is of the colour of honey; it is streaked with fine sinuous veins, and is friable and not stony. It is generally thought to be most valuable when fresh, as, when old, it becomes converted into sory. It is highly useful for removing fleshy excrescences in ulcers, for arresting hæmorrhage, and, in the form of a powder, for acting as- tringently upon the gums, the uvula, and the tonsillary glands.417 It is applied in wool, as a pessary, for affections of the uterus; and with leek juice it is formed into plasters for diseases of the genitals. This substance is macerated for forty days in vinegar, in an earthen vessel luted with dung; after which it acquires a saffron colour. When this composition is mixed with an equal proportion of cadmia, it forms the medicament known as "psoricon."418 If two parts of chalcitis are combined with one of cadmia, the medicament becomes more active; and it is rendered still more powerful if vinegar is used instead of wine. For all these purposes, calcined chalcitis is the most efficacious.


The sory419 of Egypt is the most esteemed, being considered much superior to that of Cyprus, Spain, and Africa; although some prefer the sory from Cyprus for affections of the eyes. But from whatever place it comes, the best is that which has the strongest odour, and which, when triturated, becomes greasy, black, and spongy. It is a substance so unpleasant to the stomach, that some persons are made sick merely by its smell. This is the case more particularly with the sory from Egypt. That from other countries, by trituration, acquires the lustre of misy, and is of a more gritty consistency. Held in the mouth, and used as a collutory, it is good for toothache. It is also useful for malignant ulcers of a serpiginous nature. It is calcined upon charcoal, like chalcitis.


Some persons have stated, that misy420 is formed by the calcination of the mineral, in trenches;421 its fine yellow powder becoming mixed with the ashes of the burnt fire-wood. The fact is, however, that though obtained from the mineral, it is already formed, and in compact masses, which require force to detach them. The best is that which comes from the manufactories of Cyprus, its characteristics being, that when broken, it sparkles like gold, and when triturated, it presents a sandy or earthy appearance, like chalcitis. Misy is used in the process of refining gold. Mixed with oil of roses, it is used as an injection for suppurations of the ears, and, in combination with wool, it is applied to ulcers of the head. It also removes inveterate granulations of the eye-lids, and is particularly useful for affections of the tonsils, quinsy, and suppurations. For these maladies, sixteen drachmæ should be mixed with one semisextarius of vinegar, and boiled with the addition of some honey, until it becomes of a viscous consistency; in which state it is applicable to the different purposes above mentioned. When its action is wanted to be modified, a sprinkling of honey is added. A fomentation of misy and vinegar removes the callosities of fistulous ulcers; it also enters into the composition of eye-salves. It arrests hæmorrhage, prevents the spreading of serpiginous and putrid ulcers, and consumes fleshy excrescences. It is particularly useful for diseases of the male generative organs, and acts as a check upon menstruation.


The Greeks, by the name422 which they have given to it, have indicated the relation between shoemakers' black423 and copper; for they call it "chalcanthum."424 Indeed there is no substance425 so singular in its nature. It is prepared in Spain, from the water of wells or pits which contain it in dissolution. This water is boiled with an equal quantity of pure water, and is then poured into large wooden reservoirs. Across these reservoirs there are a number of immovable beams, to which cords are fastened, and then sunk into the water beneath by means of stones; upon which, a slimy sediment attaches itself to the cords, in drops of a vitreous426 appearance, somewhat resembling a bunch of grapes. Upon being removed, it is dried for thirty days. It is of an azure colour, and of a brilliant lustre, and is often taken for glass. When dissolved, it forms the black dye that is used for colouring leather.

Chalcanthum is also prepared in various other ways: the earth which contains it being sometimes excavated into trenches, from the sides of which globules exude, which become concrete when exposed to the action of the winter frosts. This kind is called "stalagmia,"427 and there is none more pure. When its colour is nearly white, with a slight tinge of violet, it is called "lonchoton."428 It is also prepared in pans hollowed out in the rocks; the rain water carrying the slime into them, where it settles and becomes hardened. It is also formed in the same way in which we prepare salt;429 the intense heat of the sun separating the fresh water from it. Hence it is that some distinguish two kinds of chalcanthum, the fossil and the artificial; the latter being paler than the former, and as much inferior to it in quality as it is in colour.

The chalcitis which comes from Cyprus is the most highly esteemed for the purposes of medicine, being taken in doses of one drachma with honey, as an expellent of intestinal worms. Diluted and injected into the nostrils, it acts detergently upon the brain, and, taken with honey or with hydromel, it acts as a purgative upon the stomach. It removes granulations upon the eye-lids, and is good for pains and films upon the eyes; it is curative also of ulcerations of the mouth. It arrests bleeding at the nostrils, and hæmorrhoidal discharges. In combination with seed of hyoscyamus, it brings away splinters of broken bones. Applied to the forehead with a sponge, it acts as a check upon defluxions of the eyes. Made up into plasters, it is very efficacious as a detergent for sores and fleshy excrescences in ulcers. The decoction of it, by the contact solely, is curative of swellings of the uvula. It is laid with linseed upon plasters which are used for relieving pains. The whitish kind is preferred to the violet in one instance only, for the purpose of being blown into the ears, through a tube, to relieve deafness. Applied topically by itself, it heals wounds; but it leaves a discoloration upon the scars. It has been lately discovered, that if it is sprinkled upon the mouths of bears and lions in the arena, its astringent action is so powerful as to deprive the animals of the power of biting.

CHAP. 33. (13.)—POMPHOLYX.

The substances called pompholyx430 and spodos431 are also found in the furnaces of copper-smelting works; the difference between them being, that pompholyx is disengaged by washing, while spodos is not washed. Some persons have called the part which is white and very light "pompholyx," and say that it is the ashes of copper and cadmia; whereas spodos is darker and heavier, being a substance scraped from the walls of the furnace, mixed with extinguished sparks from the metal, and sometimes with the residue of coals. When vinegar is combined with it, pompholyx emits a coppery smell, and if it is touched with the tongue, the taste is most abominable. It is useful as an ingredient in ophthalmic preparations for all diseases of the eyes, as also for all the purposes for which spodos is used; this last only differing from it in its action being less powerful. It is also used for plasters, when required to be gently cooling and desiccative. For all these purposes it is more efficacious when it has been moistened with wine


The Cyprian spodos432 is the best. It is formed by fusing cadmia with copper ore. This substance, which is the lightest part of the metal disengaged by fusion, escapes from the furnace, and adheres to the roof, being distinguished from the soot by the whiteness of its colour. Such parts of it as are less white are indicative of incomplete combustion, and it is this which some persons call "pompholyx." Such portions of it as are of a more reddish colour are possessed of a more energetic power, and are found to be so corrosive, that if it touches the eyes, while being washed, it will cause blindness. There is also a spodos of a honey colour, an indication that it contains a large proportion of copper. All the different kinds, however, are improved by washing; it being first skimmed with a feather,433 and afterwards submitted to a more substantial washing, the harder grains being removed with the finger. That, too, which has been washed with wine is more modified in its effects; there being also some difference according to the kind of wine that is used. When it has been washed with weak wine the spodos is considered not so beneficial as an ingredient in medicaments for the eyes; but the same kind of preparation is more efficacious for running sores, and for ulcers of the mouth attended with a discharge of matter, as well as in all those remedies which are used for gangrene.

There is also a kind of spodos, called "lauriotis,"434 which is made in the furnaces where silver is smelted. The kind, however, that is best for the eyes, it is said, is that produced in the furnaces for smelting gold. Indeed there is no department of art in which the ingenuity of man is more to be admired; for it has discovered among the very commonest objects, a substance that is in every way possessed of similar properties.


The substance called "antispodos"435 is produced from the ashes of the fig-tree or wild fig, or of leaves of myrtle, together with the more tender shoots of the branches. The leaves, too, of the wild olive436 furnish it, the cultivated olive, the quince-tree, and the lentisk; unripe mulberries also, before they have changed their colour, dried in the sun; and the foliage of the box, pseudo-cypirus,437 bramble, terebinth and œnanthe.438 The same virtues have also been found in the ashes of bull-glue439 and of linen cloth. All these substances are burnt in a pot of raw earth, which is heated in a furnace, until the earthenware is thoroughly baked.


In the copper forges also smegma440 is prepared. When the metal is liquefied and thoroughly smelted, charcoal is added to it and gradually kindled; after which, upon it being suddenly acted upon by a powerful pair of bellows, a substance is disengaged like a sort of copper chaff. The floor on which it is received ought to be prepared with a stratum of coal-dust.


There is another product of these furnaces, which is easily distinguished from smegma, and which the Greeks call "diphryx,"441 from its being twice calcined. This substance is prepared from three different sources. It is prepared, they say, from a mineral pyrites, which is heated in the furnace until it is converted by calcination into a red earth. It is also made in Cyprus, from a slimy substance extracted from a certain cavern there, which is first dried and then gradually heated, by a fire made of twigs. A third way of making it, is from the residue in the copper-furnaces that falls to the bottom. The difference between the component parts of the ore is this; the copper itself runs into the receivers, the scoriæ make their escape from the furnace, the flower becomes sublimated, and the diphryx remains behind.

Some say that there are certain globules in the ore, while being smelted, which become soldered together; and that the rest of the metal is fused around it, the mass itself not becoming liquefied, unless it is transferred to another furnace, and forming a sort of knot, as it were, in the metal. That which remains after the fusion, they say, is called "diphryx." Its use in medicine is similar to that of the substances mentioned above;442 it is desiccative, removes morbid excrescenses, and acts as a detergent. It is tested by placing it on the tongue, which ought to be instantly parched by it, a coppery flavour being perceptible.


We must not neglect to mention one other very remarkable fact relative to copper. The Servilian family, so illustrious in our annals, nourishes with gold and silver a copper triens,443 which devours them both. The origin and nature of this coin is to me incomprehensible;444 but I will quote the very words of the story, as given by old Messala445 himself—"The family of the Servilii is in possession of a sacred triens, to which they offer every year a sacrifice, with the greatest care and magnificence; the triens itself, they say, appears sometimes to increase in size and sometimes to diminish; changes which indicate the coming advancement or decadence of the family."

CHAP. 39. (14).—IRON ORES.

Next to copper we must give an account of the metal known as iron, at the same time the most useful and the most fatal instrument in the hand of mankind. For by the aid of iron we lay open the ground, we plant trees, we prepare our vineyard-trees,446 and we force our vines each year to resume their youthful state, by cutting away their decayed branches. It is by the aid of iron that we construct houses, cleave rocks, and perform so many other useful offices of life. But it is with iron also that wars, murders, and robberies are effected, and this, not only hand to hand, but from a distance even, by the aid of missiles and winged weapons, now launched from engines, now hurled by the human arm, and now furnished with feathery wings. This last I regard as the most criminal artifice that has been devised by the human mind; for, as if to bring death upon man with still greater rapidity, we have given wings to iron and taught it to fly.447 Let us there- fore acquit Nature of a charge that here belongs to man himself.448

Indeed there have been some instances in which it has been proved that iron might be solely used for innocent purposes. In the treaty which Porsena granted to the Roman people, after the expulsion of the kings, we find it expressly stipulated, that iron shall be only employed for the cultivation of the fields; and our oldest authors inform us, that in those days it was considered unsafe to write with an iron pen.449 There is an edict extant, published in the third consulship of Pompeius Magnus, during the tumults that ensued upon the death of Clodius, prohibiting any weapon from being retained in the City.


Still, however, human industry has not failed to employ iron for perpetuating the honours of more civilized life. The artist Aristonidas, wishing to express the fury of Athamas subsiding into repentance, after he had thrown his son Learchus from the rock,450 blended copper and iron, in order that the blush of shame might be more exactly expressed, by the rust of the iron making its appearance through the shining substance of the copper; a statue which still exists at Rhodes. There is also, in the same city, a Hercules of iron, executed by Alcon,451 the endurance displayed in his labours by the god having suggested the idea. We see too, at Rome, cups of iron consecrated in the Temple of Mars the Avenger,452 Nature, in conformity with her usual benevolence, has limited the power of iron, by inflicting upon it the punishment of rust; and has thus displayed her usual foresight in rendering nothing in existence more perishable, than the substance which brings the greatest dangers upon perishable mortality.


Iron ores are to be found almost everywhere; for they exist even in the Italian island of Ilva,453 being easily distinguished by the ferruginous colour of the earth. The method of working the ore is the same as that employed in the case of copper. In Cappadocia, however, it is peculiarly questionable whether this metal is a present due to the water or to the earth; because, when the latter has been saturated with the water of a certain river, it yields, and then only, an iron that may be obtained by smelting.

There are numerous varieties of iron ore; the chief causes of which arise from differences in the soil and in the climate. Some earths produce a metal that is soft, and nearly akin to lead; others an iron that is brittle and coppery, the use of which must be particularly avoided in making wheels or nails, the former kind being better for these purposes. There is another kind, again, which is only esteemed when cut into short lengths, and is used for making hobnails;454 and another which is more particularly liable to rust. All these varieties are known by the name of "strictura,"455 an appellation which is not used with reference to the other metals, and is derived from the steel that is used for giving an edge.456 There is a great difference, too, in the smelting; some kinds producing knurrs of metal, which are especially adapted for hardening into steel, or else, prepared in another manner, for making thick anvils or heads of hammers. But the main difference results from the quality of the water into which the red-hot metal is plunged from time to time. The water, which is in some places better for this purpose than in others, has quite ennobled some localities for the excellence of their iron, Bilbilis,457 for example, and Turiasso458 in Spain, and Comum459 in Italy; and this, although there are no iron mines in these spots.

But of all the different kinds of iron, the palm of excellence is awarded to that which is made by the Seres,460who send it to us with their tissues and skins;461 next to which, in quality, is the Parthian462 iron. Indeed, none of the other kinds of iron are made of the pure hard metal, a softer alloy being welded with them all. In our part of the world, a vein of ore is occasionally found to yield a metal of this high quality, as in Noricum463 for instance; but, in other cases, it derives its value from the mode of working it, as at Sulmo,464 for example, a result owing to the nature of its water, as already stated. It is to be observed also, that in giving an edge to iron, there is a great difference between oil-whetstones and water-whetstones,465 the use of oil producing a much finer edge. It is a remarkable fact, that when the ore is fused, the metal becomes liquefied like water, and afterwards acquires a spongy, brittle texture. It is the practice to quench smaller articles made of iron with oil, lest by being hardened in water they should be rendered brittle. Human blood revenges itself upon iron; for if the metal has been once touched by this blood it is much more apt to become rusty.


We shall speak of the loadstone in its proper place,466 and of the sympathy which it has with iron. This is the only metal that acquires the properties of that stone, retaining them for a length of time, and attracting other iron, so that we may sometimes see a whole chain formed of these rings. The lower classes, in their ignorance, call this "live iron," and the wounds that are made by it are much more severe. This mineral is also found in Cantabria, not in continuous strata, like the genuine loadstone, but in scattered fragments, which they call "bullationes."467 I do not know whether this species of ore is proper also for the fusion of glass,468 as no one has hitherto tried it; but it certainly imparts the same property as the magnet to iron. The architect Timochares469 began to erect a vaulted roof of loadstone, in the Temple of Arsinoë,470 at Alexandria, in order that the iron statue of that princess might have the appearance of hanging suspended in the air:471 his death, however, and that of King Ptolemæus, who had ordered this monument to be erected in honour of his sister, prevented the completion of the project.


Of all metals, the ores of iron are found in the greatest abundance. In the maritime parts of Cantabria472 which are washed by the Ocean, there is a steep and lofty mountain, which, however incredible it may appear, is entirely composed of this metal, as already stated in our description of the parts bordering upon the Ocean473

Iron which has been acted upon by fire is spoiled, unless it is forged with the hammer. It is not in a fit state for being hammered when it is red-hot, nor, indeed, until it has begun to assume a white heat. By sprinkling vinegar or alum upon it, it acquires the appearance of copper. It is protected from rust by an application of ceruse, gypsum, and tar; a property of iron known by the Greeks as "antipathia."474 Some pretend, too, that this may be ensured by the performance of certain religious ceremonies, and that there is in existence at the city of Zeugma,475 upon the Euphrates, an iron chain, by means of which Alexander the Great constructed a bridge across the river; the links of which that have been replaced are attacked with rust, while the original links are totally exempt from it.476


Iron is employed in medicine for other purposes besides that of making incisions. For if a circle is traced with iron, or a pointed weapon is carried three times round them, it will preserve both infant and adult from all noxious influences: if nails, too, that have been extracted from a tomb, are driven into the threshold of a door, they will prevent night-mare.477 A slight puncture with the point of a weapon, with which a man has been wounded, will relieve sudden pains, attended with stitches in the sides or chest. Some affections are cured by cauterization with red-hot iron, the bite of the mad dog more particularly; for even if the malady has been fully developed, and hydrophobia has made its appearance, the patient is instantly relieved on the wound being cauterized.478 Water in which iron has been plunged at a white heat, is useful, as a potion, in many diseases, dysentery479 more particularly.


Rust itself, too, is classed among the remedial substances; for it was by means of it that Achilles cured Telephus, it is said, whether it was an iron weapon or a brazen one that he used for the purpose. So it is, however, that he is represented in paintings detaching the rust with his sword.480 The rust of iron is usually obtained for these purposes by scraping old nails with a piece of moistened iron. It has the effect of uniting wounds, and is possessed of certain desiccative and astringent properties. Applied in the form of a liniment, it is curative of alopecy. Mixed with wax and myrtle-oil, it is applied to granulations of the eyelids, and pustules in all parts of the body, with vinegar it is used for the cure of erysipelas; and, applied with lint, it is curative of itch, whitlows on the fingers, and hang-nails. Used as a pessary with wool, it arrests female discharges. Diluted in wine, and kneaded with myrrh, it is applied to recent wounds, and, with vinegar, to condylomatous6 swellings. Employed in the form of a liniment, it alleviates gout.481


The scales of iron,482 which are procured from a fine point or a sharp edge, are also made use of, being very similar in effect to rust, but more active; for which reason they are employed for defluxions of the eyes. They arrest bleeding, also, more particularly from wounds inflicted with iron; and they act as a check upon female discharges. They are applied, too, for diseases of the spleen, and they arrest hæmorrhoidal swellings and serpiginous ulcers. They are useful also for affections of the eyelids, gradually applied in the form of a fine powder. But their chief recommendation is, their great utility in the form of a hygremplastrum483 or wet plaster, for cleansing wounds and fistulous sores, consuming all kinds of callosities, and making new flesh on bones that are denuded. The following are the ingredients: of pitch, six oboli, of Cimolian chalk,484 six drachmæ, two drachmæ of pounded copper, the same quantity of scales of iron, six drachmæ of wax, and one sextarius of oil. To these is added some cerate, when it is wanted to cleanse or fill up wounds.


The nature of lead next comes to be considered. There are two kinds of it, the black and the white.485 The white is the most valuable: it was called by the Greeks "cassiteros,"486 and there is a fabulous story told of their going in quest of it to the islands of the Atlantic, and of its being brought in barks made of osiers, covered with hides.487 It is now known that it is a production of Lusitania and Gallæcia.488 It is a sand found on the surface of the earth, and of a black colour, and is only to be detected by its weight. It is mingled with small pebbles, particularly in the dried beds of rivers. The miners wash this sand, and calcine the deposit in the furnace. It is also found in the gold mines that are known as "alutiæ,"489 the stream of water which is passed through them detaching certain black pebbles, mottled with small white spots and of the same weight490 as gold. Hence it is that they remain with the gold in the baskets in which it is collected; and being separated in the furnace, are then melted, and become converted into white lead.491

Black lead is not procured in Gallæcia, although it is so greatly abundant in the neighbouring province of Cantabria; nor is silver procured from white lead, although it is from black.492 Pieces of black lead cannot be soldered without the intervention of white lead, nor can this be done without employing oil;493 nor can white lead, on the other hand, be united without the aid of black lead. White lead was held in estimation in the days even of the Trojan War, a fact that is attested by Homer, who calls it "cassiteros."494 There are two different sources of black lead: it being procured either from its own native ore, where it is produced without the intermixture of any other substance, or else from an ore which contains it in common with silver, the two metals being fused together. The metal which first becomes liquid in the furnace, is called "stannum;"495 the next that melts is silver; and the metal that remains behind is galena,496 the third constituent part of the mineral. On this last being again submitted to fusion black lead is produced, with a deduction of two-ninths.


When copper vessels are coated with stannum,497 they produce a less disagreeable flavour, and the formation of verdigris is prevented; it is also remarkable, that the weight of the vessel is not increased. As already mentioned,498 the finest mirrors were formerly prepared from it at Brundisium, until everybody, our maid-servants even, began to use silver ones. At the present day a counterfeit stannum is made, by adding one-third of white copper to two-thirds of white lead.499 It is also counterfeited in another way, by mixing together equal parts of white lead and black lead; this last being what is called "argentarium."500 There is also a composition called "tertiarium," a mixture of two parts of black lead and one of white: its price is twenty denarii per pound, and it is used for soldering pipes. Persons still more dishonest mix together501 equal parts of tertiarium and white lead, and, calling the compound "argentarium," coat articles with it melted. This last sells at sixty denarii per ten pounds, the price of the pure unmixed white lead being eighty denarii, and of the black seven.502

White lead is naturally more dry; while the black, on the contrary, is always moist; consequently the white, without being mixed with another metal, is of no use503 for anything. Silver too, cannot be soldered with it, because the silver becomes fused before the white lead. It is confidently stated, also, that if too small a proportion of black lead is mixed with the white, this last will corrode the silver. It was in the Gallic provinces that the method was discovered of coating articles of copper with white lead, so as to be scarcely distinguishable from silver: articles thus plated are known as "incoctilia."504 At a later period, the people of the town of Alesia505 began to use a similar process for plating articles with silver, more particularly ornaments for horses, beasts of burden, and yokes of oxen: the merit, however, of this invention belongs to the Bituriges.506 After this, they began to ornament their esseda, colisata, and petorita507 in a similar manner; and luxury has at last arrived at such a pitch, that not only are their decorations made of silver, but of gold even, and what was formerly a marvel to behold on a cup, is now subjected to the wear and tear of a carriage, and this in obedience to what they call fashion!

White lead is tested, by pouring it, melted,508 upon paper, which ought to have the appearance of being torn rather by the weight than by the heat of the metal. India has neither copper nor lead,509 but she procures them in exchange for her precious stones and pearls.


Black lead510 is used in the form of pipes and sheets: it is extracted with great labour in Spain, and throughout all the Gallic provinces; but in Britannia511 it is found in the upper stratum of the earth, in such abundance, that a law has been spontaneously made, prohibiting any one from working more than a certain quantity of it. The various kinds of black lead are known by the following names—the Ovetanian,512 the Caprariensian,513 and the Oleastrensian.514 There is no difference whatever in them, when the scoria has been carefully removed by calcination. It is a marvellous fact, that these mines, and these only, when they have been abandoned for some time, become replenished, and are more prolific than before. This would appear to be effected by the air, infusing itself at liberty through the open orifices, just as some women become more prolific after abortion. This was lately found to be the case with the Santarensian mine in Bætica;515 which, after being farmed at an annual rental of two hundred thousand denarii, and then abandoned, is now rented at two hundred and fifty- five thousand per annum. In the same manner, the Antonian mine in the same province has had the rent raised to four hundred thousand sesterces per annum.

It is a remarkable fact, that if we pour water into a vessel of lead, it will not melt; but that if we throw into the water a pebble or a copper quadrans,516 the vessel will be penetrated by the fire.


Lead is used in medicine, without any addition, for the removal of scars; if it is applied, too, in plates, to the region of the loins and kidneys, in consequence of its cold nature it will restrain the venereal passions, and put an end to libidinous dreams at night, attended with spontaneous emissions, and assuming all the form of a disease. The orator Calvus, it is said, effected a cure for himself by means of these plates, and so preserved his bodily energies for labour and study. The Emperor Nero—for so the gods willed it—could never sing to the full pitch of his voice, unless he had a plate of lead upon his chest; thus showing us one method of preserving the voice.517 For medicinal purposes the lead is melted in earthen vessels; a layer of finely powdered sulphur being placed beneath, very thin plates of lead are laid upon it, and are then covered with a mixture of sulphur and iron. While it is being melted, all the apertures in the vessel should be closed, otherwise a noxious vapour is discharged from the furnace, of a deadly nature, to dogs in particular. Indeed, the vapours from all metals destroy flies and gnats; and hence it is that in mines there are none of those annoyances.518 Some persons, during the process, mix lead-filings with the sulphur, while others substitute ceruse for sulphur. By washing, a preparation is made from lead, that is much employed in medicine: for this purpose, a leaden mortar, containing rain water, is beaten with a pestle of lead, until the water has assumed a thick consistency; which done, the water that floats on the surface is removed with a sponge, and the thicker part of the sediment is left to dry, and is then divided into tablets. Some persons triturate lead-filings in this way, and some mix with it lead ore, or else vinegar, wine, grease, or rose-leaves. Others, again, prefer triturating the lead in a stone mortar, one of Thebaic stone more particularly, with a pestle of lead; by which process a whiter preparation is obtained.

As to calcined lead, it is washed, like stibi519 and cadmia. Its action is astringent and repressive, and it is promotive of cicatrization. The same substance is also employed in preparations for the eyes, cases of procidence520 of those organs more particularly; also for filling up the cavities left by ulcers, and for removing excrescences and fissures of the anus, as well as hæmorrhoidal and condylomatous tumours. For all these purposes the lotion of lead is particularly useful; but for serpiginous or sordid ulcers it is the ashes of calcined lead that are used, these producing the same advantageous effects as ashes of burnt papyrus.521

The lead is calcined in thin plates, laid with sulphur in shallow vessels, the mixture being stirred with iron rods or stalks of fennel-giant, until the melted metal becomes calcined; when cold, it is pulverized. Some persons calcine lead-filings in a vessel of raw earth, which they leave in the furnace, until the earthenware is completely baked. Others, again, mix with it an equal quantity of ceruse or of barley, and triturate it in the way mentioned for raw lead; indeed, the lead which has been prepared this way is preferred to the spodium of Cyprus.


The scoria522 of lead is also made use of; the best kind being that which approaches nearest to a yellow colour, without any vestiges of lead, or which has the appearance of sulphur without any terreous particles. It is broken into small pieces and washed in a mortar, until the mortar assumes a yellow colour; after which, it is poured off into a clean vessel, the process being repeated until it deposits a sediment, which is a substance of the greatest utility. It possesses the same properties as lead, but of a more active nature. How truly wonderful is the knowledge which we gain by experiment, when even the very dregs and foul residues of substances have in so many ways been tested by mankind!


A spodium523 of lead is also prepared in the same manner as that extracted from Cyprian copper.524 It is washed with rain water, in linen of a loose texture, and the earthy parts are separated by pouring it off; after which it is sifted, and then pounded. Some prefer removing the fine powder with a feather, and then triturating it with aromatic wine.


Molybdæna,525 which in another place I have called "galena,"526 is a mineral compounded of silver and lead. It is considered better in quality the nearer it approaches to a golden colour and the less lead it contains; it is also friable, and of moderate weight. When it is melted with oil, it acquires the colour of liver. It is found adhering also to the furnaces in which gold and silver have been smelted; and in this case it is called "metallic." The most esteemed kind is that prepared at Zephyrium.527 Those kinds, too, are considered the best that are the least earthy and the least stony. It is used in preparing liparæ,528 as also for soothing or cooling ulcers, and as an ingredient in plasters, which are applied without ligatures, but are used only as a liniment for producing cicatrization on the bodies of delicate persons and the more tender parts. The composition is made of three pounds of molybdæna, one pound of wax, and three heminæ of oil; to which are added lees of olives, in the case of aged persons. Combined with scum of silver529 and scoria of lead, it is employed warm in fomentations for dysentery and tenesmus.


Psimithium,530 which is also known as ceruse, is another production of the lead-works. The most esteemed comes from Rhodes. It is made from very fine shavings of lead, placed over a vessel filled with the strongest vinegar; by which means the shavings become dissolved. That which falls into the vinegar is first dried, and then pounded and sifted, after which it is again mixed with vinegar, and is then divided into tablets and dried in the sun, during summer. It is also made in another way; the lead is thrown into jars filled with vinegar, which are kept closed for ten days; the sort of mould that forms upon the surface is then scraped off, and the lead is again put into the vinegar, until the whole of the metal is consumed. The part that has been scraped off is triturated and sifted, and then melted in shallow vessels, being stirred with ladles, until the substance becomes red, and assumes the appearance of sandarach. It is then washed with fresh water, until all the cloudy impurities have disappeared, after which it is dried as before, and divided into tablets.

Its properties are the same as those of the substances above mentioned.531 It is, however, the mildest of all the preparations of lead; in addition to which, it is also used by females to whiten the complexion.532 It is, however, like scum of silver, a deadly poison. Melted a second time, ceruse becomes red.


We have already mentioned nearly all the properties of sandarach.533 It is found both in gold-mines and in silver-mines. The redder it is, the more pure and friable, and the more powerful its odour, the better it is in quality. It is detergent, astringent, heating, and corrosive, but is most remarkable for its septic properties. Applied topically with vinegar, it is curative of alopecy. It is also employed as an ingredient in ophthalmic preparations. Used with honey, it cleanses the fauces and makes the voice more clear and harmonious. Taken with the food, in combination with turpentine, it is a pleasant cure for cough and asthma. In the form of a fumigation also, with cedar, it has a remedial effect upon those complaints.534


Arrhenicum,535 too, is procured from the same sources. The best in quality is of the colour of the finest gold; that which is of a paler hue, or resembling sandarach, being less esteemed. There is a third kind also, the colour of which is a mixture of that of gold and of sandarach. The last two kinds are both of them scaly, but the other is dry and pure, and divides into delicate long veins.536 This substance has the same virtues as the one last mentioned, but is more active in its effects. Hence it is that it enters into the composition of cauteries and depilatory preparations. It is also used for the removal of hangnails, polypi of the nostrils, condylomatous tumours, and other kinds of excrescences. For the purpose of increasing its energies, it is heated in a new earthen vessel, until it changes its colour.537

SUMMARY.—Remedies, one hundred and fifty-eight, Facts, narratives, and observations, nine hundred and fifteen.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—L. Piso,538 Antias,539 Verrius,540 M. Varro,541 Cornelius Nepos,542 Messala,543 Rufus,544 the Poet Marsus,545 Bocchus,546 Julius Bassus547 who wrote in Greek on Medicine, Sextus Niger548 who did the same, Fabius Vestalis.549

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Democritus,550 Metrodorus551 of Scepsis, Menæchmus552 who wrote on the Toreutic art, Xenocrates553 who did the same, Antigonus554 who did the same, Duris555 who did the same, Heliodorus556 who wrote on the Votive Offerings of the Athenians, Pasiteles557 who wrote on Wonderful Works, Timæus558 who wrote on the Medicines de- rived from Metals, Nymphodorus,559 Iollas,560 Apollodorus,561 Andreas,562 Heraclides,563 Diagoras,564 Botrys,565 Archidemus,566 Dionysius,567 Aristogenes,568 Democles,569 Mnesides,570 Xenocrates571 the son of Zeno, Theomnestus.572

1 The present Book is translated by the late Dr. Bostock, the translation being corrected by the readings of the Bamberg MS., which do not appear to have come under his notice. Some Notes by Dr. Bostock will be also found at the commencement of Books 33 and 35; they are distinguished by the initial B.

2 "Æris Metalla." The word "Æs" does not entirely correspond to our word "brass;" the brass of the moderns being a compound of copper and zinc, while the "Æs" of the ancients was mostly composed of copper and tin, and therefore, would be more correctly designated by the word "bronze." But this last term is now so generally appropriated to works of art, that it would seem preferable to employ in most cases the more general terms "copper" or "brass." For an excellent account of the "Æs" of the ancients, see Smith's Dict. Antiq. "Æs."—B. Mr. Westmacott, in the above-mentioned article, says that the ancient "Æs" has been found, upon analysis, to contain no zinc, but in nearly every instance to be a mixture of copper and tin, like our bronze. Beckmann says, on the other hand, that the mixture of zinc and copper now called "brass," first discovered by ores, abundant in zinc, was certainly known to the ancients. "In the course of time, an ore, which must have been calamine, was added to copper while melting, to give it a yellow colour." Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 32, 33. Bohn's Edition. There can be little doubt that the native Cadmia of Chapter 22 of this Book was our Calamine, hydrosilicate of zinc, or carbonate of zinc, or else copper ore impregnated with calamine.

3 In B. xxxiii. c. 13.

4 "Stipis auctoritas." The standard in money payments.

5 These terms must have come into use when brass, "æs," was the ordinary medium of circulation.—B. Their meaning is, "soldiers' pay," "tribunes of the treasury," the "public treasury," "made bondmen for debt," and "mulcted of their pay."

6 In B. xxxiii. c. 13.—B.

7 "Collegium." The colleges of the priests and of the augurs being the first two associated bodies.—B.

8 In B. xxxiii. c. 31, where we have an account of the ores of silver.—B.

9 Pliny again refers to this mineral in the 22d Chapter. We have no means of ascertaining, with certainty, what is the substance to which this name was applied by the ancients. The ores of copper are very numerous, and of various chemical constitutions: the most abundant, and those most commonly employed in the production of the pure metal, are the sulphurets, more especially what is termed copper pyrites, and the oxides. It has been supposed, by some commentators, that the Cadmia of the ancients was Calamine, which is an ore of zinc; but we may be confident that the Æs of the ancients could not be produced from this substance, because, as has been stated above, the Æs contains no zinc. I must, however, observe that the contrary opinion is maintained by M. Delafosse.—B. See Note 2 above.

10 The inhabitants of Bergamum, the modern Bergamo.—B. See B. iii. c. 21.

11 Aristotle gives the same account of the copper ore of Cyprus. Chalcitis is also spoken of by Dioscorides, as an ore of copper.—B. See further as to "Chaicitis," in Chapter 29 of this Book.

12 There has been much discussion respecting the nature of this substance, and the derivation of the word. Hardouin conceives it probable that it was originally written "orichaleum," i.e. "mountain brass" or "copper."—B. Ajasson considers it to be native brass, a mixture of copper and zinc. In the later writers it signifies artificial brass. The exact composition of this metal is still unknown, but there is little doubt that Hardouin is right in his supposition as to the origin of the name.

13 Possibly so called from Sallustius Crispus, the historian, who was one of the secretaries of Augustus.

14 There is some doubt respecting the locality of these people; they are enumerated by Pliny among the inhabitants of the mountainous districts of Savoy, B. iii. c. 24, and are referred to by Ptolemy.—B.

15 Livia.

16 It was named "Marian," after the celebrated Marius, and "Corduban," from the place whence it was procured; probably the mountains near Corduba, in Spain, well known as the birth-place of the two Senecas and of Lucan.—B. See B. iii. c. 3, and B. xix. c. 43.

17 No light is thrown upon the nature either of Cadmia or Aurichalcum by this statement; we only learn from it that different compounds, or substances possessing different physical properties, went under the common appellation of Æs, and were, each of them, employed in the formation of coins.—B.

18 "Dupondiariis." The "as," it must be remembered, originally weighed one pound. See B. xxxiii. c. 13, and the Introduction to Vol. III. 19 He alludes to the ancient works of art in this compound metal.

19 He alludes to the ancient works of art in this compound metal.

20 The art of making compound metals.

21 Vulcan, namely.

22 No one has accidentally stumbled upon the art of making this composite metal.

23 We have an account of the destruction of Corinth, and the accidental formation of this compound, in Florus, B. ii. c. 16. Although this account was generally received by the ancients, we may venture to assert, that it cannot be correct; we cannot conceive the possibility of such a fusion taking place during the destruction of the city, or of the complete union of the components, in the mode in which they have been found to exist.—B.

24 B.C. 146.—B.

25 "Trulleos." In an epigram of Martial, B. ix. Ep. 97, the word "trulla" signifies a chamber-pot.

26 From the Greek ἥπαρ, "the liver."

27 The Delian brass is mentioned by Cicero, in his oration "Pro Roscio Amerino," s. 46, and in his Fourth oration "In Verrem," s. 1.—B. Pausanias, in his "Eliaca," says that the Spanish copper, or copper of Tartessus, was the first known.

28 Or Cattle Market: in the Eighth Region of the City. See B. xxxv. c. 7, and Chapter 16 of this Book.

29 A distinguished statuary and engraver on silver. He lived in Olympiad 87. Further mention is made of him by Cicero, Ovid, Strabo, and Pansanias. See also Chapter 19 of this Book.

30 There were several artists of this name. The elder Polycletus, a native either of Sicyon or of Argos, is probably the one here referred to. For further particulars of him, see Chapter 19.

31 The words in the original are, respectively candelabra, superficics, and scapi.—B.

32 Probably a proverbial expression at Rome, as it is employed by Juvenal, in an analogous manner, upon another occasion; Sat. iii. 1. 132.—B. 33 Plutarch speaks of the Geganii as an ancient noble family at Rome.

33 Pultarch speaks of the Geganii as an ancient noble family at Rome.

34 See B. xxxiii. c. 53.

35 A. U. C. 585; we have an account of it in Livy, B. xiv. c. 42.—B.

36 This building is referred to by Velleius Paterculus, in the beginning of the Second Book of his History.—B. According to Aurelius Victor, it was situated in the Ninth Region of the City.

37 The Temple of Vesta is described by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 265, et seq.—B.

38 C. Camillus probably, the Roman jurist and friend of Cicero.

39 See end of B. ii.

40 "Triclinia," "abaci," and "monopodia;" these appear to have been couches for dining-tables, tables furnished with cupboards, and tables standing on a single foot. Livy, B. xxxix. c. 6, informs us, that Cneius Manlius, in his triumphal procession, introduced into Rome various articles of Asiatic luxury; "Lectos æratos, vestem stragulam preciosam, monopodia, et abacos." We are not to suppose that the whole of these articles were made of brass, but that certain parts of them were formed of this metal, or else were ornamented with brass.—B.

41 See end of B. ii.

42 "Cortinas tripodum." These articles of furniture consisted of a table or slab, supported by three feet, which was employed, like our sideboards, for the display of plate, at the Roman entertainments.—B.

43 "Lychnuchi pensiles," this term is applied by Suetonius, Julius, s. 37; we may conceive that they were similar to the modern chandeliers.—B

44 This temple was dedicated by Augustus A.U.C. 726. The lamps in it, resembling trees laden with fruit, are mentioned by Victor in his description of the Tenth Quarter of the City.—B.

45 See B. v. c. 32.

46 We have an account of this event in Livy, B. ii. c. 41, in Valerius Maximus, and in Dionysius of Halicarnassus.—B.

47 "Iconicæ," "portrait statues," from ἔικων, of the same meaning. This term is employed by Suetonius, in speaking of a statue of Caligula, c. 22.—B.

48 Pisistratus. These statues are mentioned in the 19th Chapter of this Book, as being the workmanship of Praxiteles.—B.

49 See B. vii. cc. 31, 34: B. viii. c. 74: and B. ix. c. 63.

50 Near the Temple of Janus, in the Eighth Region of the City.

51 The Luperci were the priests of Pan, who, at the celebration of their games, called Lupercalia, were in the habit of running about the streets of Rome, with no other covering than a goat's skin tied about the loins.—B.

52 "Pænula." See B. viii. c. 73.

53 We are informed by Cicero, De Off. B. iii. c. 30, and by Valerius Maximus, B. ii. c. 7, that Marcinus made a treaty with the Numantines, which the senate refused to ratify, and that he was, in consequence, surrendered to the enemy. We may suppose that he regarded the transaction as redounding more to the discredit of the senate than of himself.—B.

54 See end of B. xviii.

55 In the First Region of the City, near the Capenian Gate.

56 "Celetes;" this appellation is derived from the Greek word κέλης, "swift," and was applied to those who rode on horseback, in opposition to the charioteers.—B.

57 Poinsinet remarks that Pliny has forgotten the gilded chariot, with six horses, which Cneius Cornelius dedicated in the Capitol, two hundred years before Augustus; he also refers to an ancient inscription in Gruter, which mentions chariots of this description.—B.

58 Mænius was consul with Furius Camillus, A.U.C. 416; we have an account of his victories over the Latins and other neighbouring nations in Livy, B. viii. c. 14.—B.

59 We have an account of this transaction in Livy, B. viii. c. 14. This trophy is also mentioned by Florus, B. i. c. 11. The "Suggestus" was an elevated place, formed for various purposes, the stage from which the orators addressed the people, the place from which the general addressed his soldiers, and the seat occupied by the emperor at the public games.—B.

60 Florus, B. ii. c. 2, gives an account of the arrangements and equipment of the Carthaginian fleet, the victory of Duillius, and the rostral monument erected in its commemoration.—B.

61 See B. xviii. c. 4.

62 "Unciariâ stipe;" the uncia was the twelfth part of the "as," and the word stips was regarded as equivalent to as, as being the usual pay of the soldiers.—B. See Introduction to Vol. III.

63 See B. xv. c. 20.

64 This circumstance is mentioned by Cicero in his Defence of Milo, § 90–1.—B.

65 We have some account of Hermodorus in Cicero's Tusc. Quæs. B. v. c. 36.—B.

66 See B. x. c. 2, B. xviii. c. 3, and B. xxxiii. c. 7.

67 Livy, B. ii. c. 10, and Valerius Maximus, B. iii. c. 2, give an account of this event. A, Gellius incidentally mentions the statue, and its position in the Comitium, B. iv. c. 5.—B.

68 We are informed by Dion Cassius, that there were eight statues in the Capitol, seven of which were of the kings, and the eighth of Brutus, who overthrew the kingly government; at a later period the statue of Cæsar was placed by the side of that of Brutus.—B.

69 Suetonius, speaking of this temple, remarks, that though dedicated to the brothers Castor and Pollux, it was only known as the Temple of Castor.—B.

70 We have an account of the victory of Tremulus over the Hernici, and of the statue erected in honour of him, in Livy, B. ix. c. 43.—B.

71 This event is referred to by Cicero, Philipp. ix., 5.—B.

72 Florus, B. ii. c. 5, gives an account of the murder of P. Junius and T. Coruncanius.—B.

73 In the Bamberg MS. the reading is "unum se. verbum." Gronovius is probably right in his conjecture that the word is "senatus consulti."

74 By one Leptines, at Laodicea.

75 "Oculatissimo." The place where there was "the most extended eyeshot." It is to this singular expression, probably, that Pliny alludes.

76 "Quod campum Tiberinum gratificata esset ea populo."

77 A.U.C. 441.

78 See B. vii. c. 31.

79 His life has been written by Diogenes Laertius, and he is mentioned by Cicero, de Fin. B. v. c. 19, and by Strabo.—B.

80 In B. xxxiii. c. 46.

81 We have an account of the exploit of Clælia in Livy, B. ii. c. 13, and in Valerius Maximus, B. iii. c. 2: there is a reference to this statue in Seneca, de Consol. c. 16.—B.

82 To King Porsena.

83 See end of B. xvi.

84 Plutarch says that it was uncertain whether the statue was erected to Clælia or to Valcria.—B.

85 A.U.C. 596.—B.

86 See Chapter 9.

87 "In Octaviæ operibus." These were certain public buildings, erected in Rome by Augustus, and named by him after his sister Octavia; they are mentioned by Suetonius.—B.

88 Valerius Maximus refers to this event, but he names the individual Statius Servilius, B. i. c. 8, § 6.—B.

89 See B. xxxiii. cc. 50, 54.

90 We have an account of the attack by Hannibal on Rome in the twenty-sixth Book of Livy, but we have no mention of the particular circumstance here referred to.—B.

91 "Forum Boarium." See Chapter 5.

92 Livy, B. i. c. 19, informs us, that Numa made Janus of a form to denote both peace and war.—B.

93 The mode in which the fingers were placed, so as to serve the purpose here indicated, is supposed to have been by their forming the letters which were the Roman numerals for the figures in question. We are informed that some MSS. of Pliny give the number three hundred and fifty-five only, and there is reason to believe that, in the time of Numa, this was considered to be the actual number of days in the year. Some of the commentators, however, are disposed to read three hundred and sixty-five; and this opinion derives some support from Macrobius, who refers to this statue as indicating this latter number with its fingers.—B. The Bamberg MS. gives three hundred and sixty-five.

94 See end of B. iii.

95 "Misoromæus"—"Roman-hater." See end of B. iii.

96 Pliny himself informs us, in B. xxxv. c. 45, that the statue of Jupiter in the Capitol, erected by Tarquinius Priscus, was formed of earth.—B.

97 The art of moulding or modelling in argillaceous earth; see B. xxxv. cc. 43, 45.

98 See B. xxxvi. c. L, where he informs us that this theatre was hardly one month in use.—B.

99 Hardouin gives several quotations illustrative of his liberality in bestowing ornaments in the City, and his inattention to his domestic concerns.—B.

100 The brothers Lucius and Marcus, the former of whom triumphed in the Mithridatic, the latter in the Macedonian War.—B.

101 See end of B. ii.

102 See B. vii. c. 38.

103 The absolute number of statues assigned to Lysippus differs considerably in the different editions, as is the case in almost every instance where figures are concerned. Pliny gives a further account of his works in the next two Chapters and in the following Book.—B.

104 "Aureum." See B. xxxiii. c. 13, and B. xxxvii. c. 3.

105 In their attack upon Flavius Sabinus, the brother of Vespasian; A.U.C. 822.

106 See B. iv. c. 27.

107 It was a statue of Jupiter.

108 Better known by the name of Q. Fabius Maximus; he acquired the soubriquet of Verrucosus from a large wart on the upper lip.—B.

109 The Colossus of Rhodes was begun by Chares, but he committed suicide, in consequence of having made some mistake in the estimate; the work was completed by Laches, also an inhabitant of Lindos.—B.

110 It remained on the spot where it was thrown down for nearly nine hundred years, until the year 653 A.D., when Moavia, khalif of the Saracens, after the capture of Rhodes, sold the materials; it is said that it required nine hundred camels to remove the remains.—B.

111 Demetrius Poliorcetes. See B. xxxv. c. 36.

112 He is mentioned by Columella, in his Introduction to his work De Re Rusticâ, in connexion with the most celebrated Grecian artists.—B.

113 Suetonius, in describing the temple which Augustus dedicated to Apollo, on the Palatine Hill, speaks of the Portico with the Latin and Greek library.—B.

114 This victory took place A.U.C. 461; we have an account of it in Livy, the concluding Chapter of the Tenth Book.—B.

115 This was a statue of Jupiter, placed on the Alban Mount, twelve miles from Rome. At this place the various states of Latium exercised their religious rites in conjunction with the Romans; it was sometimes called Latialis.—B. See B. iii. c. 9, and Notes; Vol. I. p. 205.

116 The designer of the Colossus at Rhodes.

117 Decius is said by Hardouin to have been a statuary, but nothing is known respecting him or his works.—B. He probably lived about the time of the Consul P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, A.U.C. 697.

118 His country is unknown.

119 See B. iv. c. 33.

120 St. Jerome informs us, that Vespasian removed the head of Nero, and substituted that of the Sun with seven rays. Martial refers to it in the Second Epigram De Spectaculis, and also B. i. Ep. 71.—B.

121 "Parvis admodum surculis." There is, it appears, some difficulty in determining the application of the word surculis to the subject in question, and we have no explanation of it by any of the commentators. Can it refer to the frame of wicker work which contained the model into which the melted metal was poured?—B.

122 This observation has been supposed to imply, that Zenodotus cast his statues in a number of separate pieces, which were afterwards connected together, and not, as was the case with the great Grecian artists, in one entire piece.—B.

123 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

124 The term signum, which is applied to the Corinthian figures, may mean a medallion, or perhaps a seal-ring or brooch; we only know that it must have been something small, which might be carried about the person, or, at least, easily moved from place to place.—B. Statuette, probably.

125 Her riddle, and its solution by Œdipus, are too well known to need repetition here.

126 In the following Chapter.

127 Consul A.U.C. 787.

128 The "Avenger." In the Forum of Augustus, in the Eighth Region of the City.

129 "Regia." The palace of Minerva, also in the Forum of Augustus.—B.

130 See B. vii. c. 39, B. xxxv. c. 34, and B. xxxvi. c. 4.

131 We have an account of this statue, and of the temple in which it was placed, by Pausanias, B. v. There is no work of Phidias now in existence; the sculptures in the Parthenon were, however, executed by his pupils and under his immediate directions, so that we may form some judgment of his genius and taste.—B. There is a foot in the British Museum, said to be the work of Phidias.

132 An Athenian; see B. xxxvi. c. 5. He is spoken of in high terms by Pausanias and Valerius Maximus.

133 Tutor of Ptolichus of Corcyra, and highly distinguished for his statues of the slayers of the tyrants at Athens. He is mentioned also by Lucian and Pausanias.

134 The reading is uncertain here, the old editions giving "Nestocles." We shall only devote a Note to such artists as are mentioned by other authors besides Pliny.

135 An Athenian; mentioned also by Pausanias.

136 There were probably two artists of this name; one an Argive, tutor of Phidias, and the other a Sicyonian, the person here referred to.

137 A native of Ægina, mentioned by Pausanias. There is also a statuary of Elis of the same name, mentioned by Pausanias, and to whom Thiersch is of opinion reference is here made.

138 See Chapter 5 of this Book.

139 An Argive, mentioned by Pausanias.

140 See Chapter 5 of this Book.

141 Again mentioned by Pliny, as a native of Rhegium in Italy.

142 A native of Paros, mentioned also by Pausanias and Strabo.

143 Probably "Perillus," the artist who made the brazen bull for Phalaris, the tyrant of Agrigentum. The old reading is "Parelius."

144 This and the following word probably mean one person—"Asopodorus the Argive."

145 Perhaps the same person that is mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 20, as having improved the form of the starting-place at the Olympic Games.

146 Mentioned by Pausanias as an Arcadian, and son of Clitor.

147 A native of Clitorium in Arcadia, and mentioned also by Pausanias.

148 He is said by Pausanias and Athenæus to have been the son, also, of Myron.

149 Son of Motho, and a native of Argos. He was brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus, of Argos. He is mentioned also by Pausanias and Tatian.

150 He is once mentioned by Pausanias, and there is still extant the basis of one of his works, with his name inscribed.

151 It is supposed that there were two artists of this name, both natives of Sicyon, the one grandson of the other. They are both named by Pausanias.

152 Probably a Sicyonian; he is mentioned also by Pausanias.

153 As Pliny mentions two artists of this name, it is impossible to say to which of them Pausanias refers as being an Athenian, in B. vi. c. 4.

154 The elder artist of this name. He was an Athenian, and his sister was the wife of Phocion. He is also mentioned by Plutarch and Pausanias.

155 An Athenian; he is mentioned also by Vitruvius, Pausanias, and Tatian. Winckelmann mentions an inscription relative to him, which, however, appears to be spurious.

156 He is mentioned also by Pausanias, and is supposed by Sillig to have been a Theban.

157 Praxiteles held a high rank among the ancient sculptors, and may be considered as second to Phidias alone; he is frequently mentioned by Pausanias and various other classical writers. Pliny gives a further account of the works of Praxiteles in the two following Books.—B.

158 He was also an eminent painter, and is also mentioned by Quintilian, Dio Chrysostom, and Plutarch.

159 Another reading is "Echion."

160 See B. xxxv. cc. 32, 36.

161 This great artist, a native of Sicyon, has been already mentioned in B. vii. c. 39, and in the two preceding Chapters of the present Book; he is again mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 39.—B. See note 28 above.

162 Also a native of Sicyon. He is mentioned by Tatian.

163 Mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Strabo, and Appian. The next two names in former editions stand as one, "Euphronides."

164 Supposed to have been an architect, and builder of the Pharos near Alexandria: see B. xxxvi. c. 18. The same person is mentioned also by Strabo, Lucian, and Suidas.

165 An Athenian. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Tatian.

166 See B. xxxv. c. 36.

167 A Sicyonian, pupil of Lysippus. He is also mentioned by Pausanias; see also B. xxxvi. c. 4.

168 Son and pupil of Lysippus. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and by some writers as the instructor of Xenocrates.

169 Sillig thinks that this is a mistake made by Pliny for "Daïppus," a statuary mentioned by Pausanias.

170 Son of Praxiteles, and mentioned by Tatian in conjunction with Euthycrates. The elder Cephisodotus has been already mentioned. See Note 52.

171 Another son of Praxiteles. He is also alluded to by Pausanias, though not by name.

172 His country is uncertain, but he was preceptor of Mygdon of Soli. See B. xxxv. c. 40.

173 Mentioned also by Tatian; his country is unknown.

174 It is doubtful whether Pausanias alludes, in B. vi. c. 4, to this artist, or to the one of the same name mentioned under Olymp. 102. See Note 51.

175 Sillig suggests that this word is an adjective, denoting the country of Polycles, in order to distinguish him from the elder Polycles.

176 We learn from Pausanias that he worked in conjunction with Timarchides. The other artists here mentioned are quite unknown.

177 Sillig, in his "Dictionary of Ancient Artists," observes that "this passage contains many foolish statements." Also that there is "an obvious intermixture in it of truth and falsehood."

178 This is universally admitted to have been one of the most splendid works of art. It is celebrated by various writers; Pausanias speaks of it in B. i. See also B. xxxvi. c. 4.—B.

179 As being made for the Temple of Diana at Ephesus.

180 Probably "Callimorphos," or "Calliste." We learn from Pausanias that it was placed in the Citadel of Athens. Lucian prefers it to every other work of Phidias.

181 A figure of a female "holding keys." The key was one of the attributes of Proserpina, as also of Janus; but the latter was an Italian divinity.

182 "Ædem Fortunæ hujusce diei." This reading, about which there has been some doubt, is supported by an ancient inscription in Orellius.

183 "Artem toreuticen." See Note at the end of B. xxxiii.

184 Pliny has here confounded two artists of the same name; the Polycletus who was the successor of Phidias, and was not much inferior to him in merit, and Polycletus of Argos, who lived 160 years later, and who also executed many capital works, some of which are here mentioned. It appears that Cicero, Vitruvius, Strabo, Quintilian, Plutarch, and Lucian have also confounded these two artists; but Pausanias, who is very correct in the account which he gives us of all subjects connected with works of art, was aware of the distinction; and it is from his observations that we have been enabled to correct the error into which so many eminent writers had fallen.—B.

185 Derived from the head-dress of the statue, which had the "head ornamented with a fillet" Lucian mentions it.

186 The "Spear-bearer."

187 "Canon." This no doubt was the same statue as the Doryphoros. See Cicero, Brut. 86, 296.

188 Or "strigil." Visconti says that this was a statue of Tydeus purifying himself from the murder of his brother. It is represented on gems still in existence.

189 "Talo incessentem." "Gesner (Chrestom. Plin.) has strangely explained these words as intimating a person in the act of kicking another. He seems to confound the words talus and calx."—Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

190 "The players at dice." This is the subject of a painting found at Herculaneum.—B.

191 The "Leader." A name given also to Mercury, in Pausanias, B. viii. c. 31. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

192 "Carried about." It has been supposed by some commentators, that Artemon acquired this surname from his being carried about in a litter, in consequence of his lameness; a very different derivation has been assigned by others to the word, on the authority of Anacreon, as quoted by Heraclides Ponticus, that it was applied to Artemon in consequence of his excessively luxurious and effeminate habits of life.—B. It was evidently a recumbent figure. Ajasson compares this voluptuous person to "le gentleman Anglais aux Indes"—"The English Gentleman in India!"

193 See Note 80 above.

194 "Quadrata." Brotero quotes a passage from Celsus, B. ii. c. 1, which serves to explain the use of this term as applied to the form of a statue; "Corpus autem habilissimum quadratum est, neque gracile, neque obesum."—B. "The body best adapted for activity is square-built, and neither slender nor obese."

195 "Ad unum exemplum." Having a sort of family likeness, similarly to our pictures by Francia the Goldsmith, and Angelica Kaufmann.

196 Myron was born at Eleutheræ, in Bœotia; but having been presented by the Athenians with the freedom of their city, he afterwards resided there, and was always designated an Athenian.—B.

197 This figure is referred to by Ovid, De Ponto, B. iv. Ep. 1, l. 34, as also by a host of Epigrammatic writers in the Greek Anthology.

198 See the Greek Anthology, B. vi. Ep. 2.

199 "Player with the Discus." It is mentioned by Quintilian and Lucian. There is a copy of it in marble in the British Museum, and one in the Palazzo Massimi at Rome. The Heifer of Myron is mentioned by Procopius, as being at Rome in the sixth century. No copy of it is known to exist.

200 Seen by Pausanias in the Acropolis at Athens.

201 Or "Sawyers."

202 In reference to the story of the Satyr Marsyas and Minerva; told by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. l. 697, et seq.

203 Persons engaged in the five contests of quoiting, running, leaping, wrestling, and hurling the javelin.

204 Competitors in boxing and wrestling.

205 Mentioned by Cicero In Verrem, Or. 4. This Circus was in the Eleventh Region of the city.

206 See the Anthology, B. iii. Ep. 14, where an epigram on this subject is ascribed to Anytes or Leonides; but the Myro mentioned is a female. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

207 She was a poetess of Teios or Lesbos, and a contemporary of Sappho.

208 "Multiplicasse veritatem." Sillig has commented at some length on this passage, Dict. Ancient Artists.

209 See Note 2 above.

210 There is a painter of this name mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 43. The reading is extremely doubtful.

211 Mentioned by Plato, De Legibus, B. viii. and by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 13. He was thrice victorious at the Olympic Games.

212 Python.

213 From the Greek word δικαιὸς, "just," or "trustworthy."—B.

214 Diogenes Laertius mentions a Pythagoras, a statuary, in his life of his celebrated namesake, the founder of the great school of philosophy.—B. Pausanias, B. ix. c. 35, speaks of a Parian statuary of this name.

215 See Note 79 above.

216 See end of B. vii.

217 Cicero remarks, Brut. 86, 296, "that Lysippus used to say that the Doryphoros of Polycletus was his master," implying that he considered himself indebted for his skill to having studied the above-mentioned work of Polycletus.—B.

218 In Chapter 17 of this Book.—B.

219 The same subject, which, as mentioned above, had been treated by Polycletus.—B.

220 ᾿αποξυομενος, the Greek name of the statue, signifying one "scraping himself."

221 The head encircled with rays.

222 The lines of Horace are well known, in which he says, that Alexander would allow his portrait to be painted by no one except Apelles, nor his statue to be made by any one except Lysippus, Epist. B. ii. Ep. 1, l. 237.—B.

223 This story is adopted by Apuleius, in the "Florida," B. i., who says that Polycletus was the only artist who made a statue of Alexander.

224 This expression would seem to indicate that the gold was attached to the bronze by some mechanical process, and not that the statue was covered with thin leaves of the metal.—B.

225 In the Eighth Region of the City.

226 A large group of equestrian statues, representing those of Alexander's body-guard, who had fallen at the battle of the Granicus.

227 A.U.C. 606.

228 See the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 14, where this subject is treated of in the epigram upon his statue of Opportunity, represented with the forelock.

229 Which is a word of Greek origin, somewhat similar to our word "proportion."

230 At Lebadæa in Bœotia.

231 Hardouin seems to think that "fiscina" here means a "muzzle." The Epigram in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. c. 7, attributed to King Philip, is supposed by Hardouin to bear reference to this figure.

232 The circumstance here referred to is related by Q. Curtius, B. ix. c. 5, as having occurred at the siege of the city of the Oxydracæ; according to other historians, however, it is said to have taken place at a city of the Malli.—B.

233 See Note 1, above.

234 κατάγουσα; a figure of Ceres, probably, "leading back" Proserpine from the domains of Pluto. Sillig, however, dissents from this interpretation; Dict. Ancient Artists.

235 Or Bacchus.

236 See Pausanias, B. i. c. 20. Sillig says, "Pliny seems to have confounded two Satyrs made by Praxiteles, for that here named stood alone in the 'Via Tripodum' at Athens, and was quite different from the one which was associated with the figure of Intoxication, and that of Bacchus." —Dict. Ancient Artists.

237 "Much-famed." Visconti is of opinion that the Reposing Satyr, formerly in the Napoleon Museum at Paris, was a copy of this statue. Winckelmann is also of the same opinion.

238 In the Second Region of the city. According to Cicero, in Verrem. vi., they were brought from Achaia by L. Mummius, who took them from Thespiæ, A.U.C. 608.

239 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

240 A woman plaiting garlands.

241 A soubriquet for an old hag, it is thought.

242 A female carrying wine.

243 According to Valerius Maximus, B. ii. s. 10, these statues were restored, not by Alexander, but by his successor Seleucus.—B. Sillig makes the following remark upon this passage—" Pliny here strangely confounds the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, made by Praxiteles, with other figures of those heroes of a much more ancient date, made by Antenor."

244 From σαυρὸς, a "lizard," and κτἐλνω, "to kill." This statue is described by Martial, B. xiv. Ep. 172, entitled "Sauroctonos Corinthius."—B. Many fine copies of it are still in existence, and Winckelmann is of opinion that the bronze at the Villa Albani is the original. There are others at the Villa Borghese and in the Vatican.

245 In her worthless favours, probably. Praxiteles was a great admirer of Phryne, and inscribed on the base of this statue an Epigram of Simonides, preserved in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 12. She was also said to have been the model of his Cnidian Venus.

246 This artist is mentioned also by Cicero, Pausanias, Propertius, and Ovid, the two latter especially remarking the excellence of his horses.—B. See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

247 The mother of Hercules.—B.

248 See B. xxxvi. c. 4. Having now given an account of the artists most distinguished for their genius, Pliny proceeds to make some remarks upon those who were less famous, in alphabetical order.—B.

249 The "highly approved."

250 Or "Lioness." See B. vii. c. 23.

251 The reading is doubtful here. "Iphicrates" and "Tisicrates" are other readings.

252 The same story is related by Athenæus, B. xiii., and by Pausanias.—B.

253 Pisistratus and his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus.

254 A lioness.

255 She having bitten off her tongue, that she might not confess.

256 Hardouin has offered a plausible conjecture, that for the word "Seleucum," we should read "Salutem," as implying that the two statues executed by Bryaxis were those of Æsculapius and the Goddess of Health.—B.

257 Already mentioned as a son of Lysippus.

258 In the Eighth Region of the City.

259 This reading appears preferable to "Cresilas," though the latter is supported by the Bamberg MS.

260 Ajasson quotes here the beautiful words of Virgil—"Et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos"—"Remembers his lov'd Argos, as he dies."

261 Dalechamps supposes that Pericles was here represented in the act of addressing the people; Hardouin conceives that this statue received its title from the thunder of his eloquence in debate, or else from the mighty power which he wielded both in peace and war, or some of the other reasons which Plutarch mentions in the Life of Pericles.—B.

262 It is doubtful to which of the artists of this name he alludes, the elder or the younger Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles. Sillig inclines to think the former—Dict. Ancient Artists.

263 The "Deliverer."

264 The elder Canachus, probably.

265 The "Lovely." Brotero says that this is believed to be the Florentine Apollo of the present day. It stood in the Temple at Didymi, near Miletus, until the return of Xerxes from his expedition against Greece, when it was removed to Ecbatana, but was afterwards restored by Seleucus Nicator.

266 See B. v. c. 31.

267 "Alterno morsu calce digitisque retinentibus solum, ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus ut a repulsu per vices resiliat." He seems to mean that the statue is so made as to be capable of standing either on the right fore foot and the left hind foot, or on the left fore foot and the right hind foot, the conformation of the under part of the foot being such as to fit into the base.

268 The following are the words of the original: "Ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus." I confess myself unable to comprehend them, nor do I think that they are satisfactorily explained by Hardouin's comment.—B.

269 The "Riders on horseback."

270 It is supposed by Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists, that this is the same person as the Cresilas, Ctesilas, or Ctesilaüs, before mentioned in this Chapter, and that Pliny himself has committed a mistake in the name.

271 A figure of a man "brandishing a spear." See Note 83 above.

272 He is mentioned by Quintilian as being more attentive to exactness than to beauty; also by Diogenes Laertius, B. v. c. 85. Sillig supposes that he flourished in the time of Pericles. Pausanias, B. i., speaks of his Lysimache.

273 The Athenians in their flattery, as we learn from Seneca, expressed a wish to affiance their Minerva Musica to Marc Antony. His reply was, that he would be happy to take her, but with one thousand talents by way of portion.

274 He is mentioned by Xenophon, according to whom, he dedicated the brazen statue of a horse in the Eleusinium at Athens. He was probably an Athenian by birth.

275 Son of Patroclus, who is previously mentioned as having lived in the 95th Olympiad. He was a native of Sicyon, and flourished about B.C. 400. Several works of his are also mentioned by Pausanias.

276 Or "strigil." See Note 19 above.

277 The first Grecian slain at Troy.

278 Famous also as a painter. See B. xxxv. c. 40.—B. Paris, the son of Priam, was known by both of these names.

279 Q. Lutatius Catulus.

280 "Bonus Eventus;" Varro, de Re Rustica, B. i. c. 1, applies this term to one of the deities that preside over the labours of the agriculturist. His temple was situate near the Baths of Agrippa.—B.

281 In the Eighth Region of the City.

282 See Note 78, page 171.

283 Pausanias, B. vi., speaks of a statue of Ancient Greece, but the name of the artist is not mentioned.—B.

284 See B. iv. c. 8.

285 Brotero informs us, from Ficoroni, that there is a gem still in existence on which this design of Eutychides is engraved.—B.

286 Thiersch considers him to be identical with the elder Hegesias. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, B. viii. c. 42.

287 See Note 68, above.

288 Dedicated by Augustus on the Capitoline Hill, in the Eighth Region of the City.

289 Sillig distinguishes three artists of this name.

290 See B. v. c. 40, and B. vii. c. 2.

291 The "Sacrificers of the ox."

292 The son also.

293 Martial expresses the same idea in his Epigram, B. i. Ep. 7; but he does not refer to this statue.—B. Two copies of this Ganymede are still in existence at Rome.

294 Pausanias informs us, B. i. and B. ix., that he saw this statue in the Prytanæum of Athens.—B. Autolycus obtained this victory about the 89th or 90th Olympiad.

295 It was in honour of a victory gained by him in the pentathlon at the Great Panathenæa, that Callias gave the Symposium described by Xenophon.

296 Martial, B. ix. Ep. 51, where he is pointing at the analogy between his poems and the works of the most eminent sculptors, probably refers to this statue:—
"Nos facimus Bruti puerum, nos Lagona vivum."—B.
The reading "Lagonem," or "Langonem," certainly seems superior to that of the Bamberg MS.—"Mangonem," a "huckster."

297 For some further mention of him, see end of B. iv.

298 Delafosse has pointed out the resemblance between this statue and one of the works of Michael Angelo, representing David kneeling on Goliath, and pressing back the giant's neck.—B.

299 A native of Argos, who flourished in the 95th Olympiad. He was the son of Motho, and brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus of Argos. Several of his statues are mentioned by Pausanias and Tatian.

300 Ajasson thinks that three statues in the Royal Museum at Paris may possibly be copies of this Discobolus of Naucydes.

301 The Goddess of Health, and daughter of Æsculapius. Niceratus was a native of Athens, and is also mentioned by Tatian.

302 A "Female sacrificing." The reading is very doubtful.

303 The "Man cooking entrails." For some further account of this statue, see B. xxii. c. 20. This artist is unknown, but Thiersch suggests that he may have been the father of Cleomenes, whose name appears on the base of the Venus de Medicis.

304 The master of the Gymnasium.

305 He is twice mentioned by Pausanias: more particularly for the excellence of his horses and oxen. His country is unknown.

306 "The beautiful-legged." This statue has been mentioned at the end of Chapter 18, as having been greatly admired by Nero.

307 This, it is supposed, is the statue to which Martial alludes in his Epigram, mentioned in Note 95 above.—B.

308 There were two artists of this name, both natives of Samos. The present is the elder Theodorus, and is mentioned by Pausanias as having been the first to fuse iron for statues. He is spoken of by numerous ancient authors, and by Pliny in B. vii. c. 57, B. xxxv. c. 45, and B. xxxvi. c. 19, where he is erroneously mentioned as a Lemnian.

309 At Crete: Athenagoras mentions him in conjunction with Dædalus.

310 See B. vii. c. 21. Hardouin thinks that this bears reference to the conquest of the younger Marius by Sylla, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 5. Müller and Meyer treat this story of the brazen statue as a fiction.

311 Probably the same author that is mentioned at the end of B. xxxiii. See also B. xxxv. c. 36.

312 The Galli here spoken of were a tribe of the Celts, who invaded Asia Minor, and afterwards uniting with the Greeks, settled in a portion of Bithynia, which hence acquired the name of Gallo-Græcia or Galatia.—B.

313 See end of B. xxxiii. Attalus I., king of Pergamus, conquered the Galli, B.C. 239. Pyromachus has been mentioned a few lines before, and Stratonicus, in B. xxxiii. c. 55, also by Athenæus.

314 A native of Carthage. A work of his is mentioned by Cicero, In Verrem 4, 14, and in the Culex, 1. 66, attributed to Virgil. See also B. xxxiii. c. 55.

315 In the Eighth Region of the City.

316 We are informed by Pausanias, B. x., that Nero carried off from Greece 500 bronze statues of gods and men.—B.

317 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

318 See B. xxxv. c. 55.

319 Mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. Many of these artists are altogether unknown.

320 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

321 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

322 See B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35.

323 Probably the same artist that has been mentioned in the preceding page.

324 The artist already mentioned as having been represented by Silanion.

325 Pausanias, B. iii., speaks of his statue of Cynisca, a female who was victor at the Olympic games. Indeed, the victors at these games were frequently represented in a posture resembling that of adoration.

326 A man "scraping himself," probably. See Note 19, page 175. The "Tyrannicides" were Harmodius and Aristogiton.

327 Tatian mentions an artist of this name.

328 Sillig thinks that this was Seleucus, king of Babylon, B.C. 312.

329 See Note 70 above

330 Pausanias, B. viii., gives an account of a statue of Diana, made of Pentelican marble, by this Cephisodotus, a native of Athens; he is supposed to have flourished in the 102nd Olympiad. In the commencement of this Chapter, Pliny has enumerated a Cephisodotus among the artists of the 120th Olympiad.—B.

331 Bacchus.

332 The elder artist of this name. See B. xxxv. c. 34.

333 A native of Sicyon; Pausanias, B. v. cc. 17, 21, informs us that Cleon made a statue of Venus and two statues of Jupiter; he also mentions others of his works in B. vi.—B.

334 A native of Megara. He made a 'statue of Diagoras the pugilist, who was victor at the Olympic games, B.C. 464. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.

335 Probably the same with the "Laïppus" mentioned in the early part of this Chapter. Silling, Diet. Ancient Artists, considers "Daïppus" to be the right name.

336 See Note 26 above.

337 A native of Sicyon, and pupil of Pison, according to Pausanias, B. vi. c. 3. He flourished about the 100th Olympiad.

338 Works of his at Athens are mentioned by Pausanias, B. i. c. 2, who also states that he was father of Euohir, the Athenian.

339 A statuary of Syracuse, son of Niceratus. He made two statues of Hiero Il., king of Syracuse, who died B.C. 215. He must not be confounded with the painter and statuary of the same name, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.

340 An Athenian, son of Euctemon. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and is supposed by Sillig to have flourished about B.C. 420.

341 Called Dinomache by Plutarch.

342 Already mentioned as a successful pupil of Lysippus.

343 He was probably a native of Agrigentum, and flourished about B.C. 560. The brazen bull of Perillus, and his unhappy fate, are recorded by many of the classical writers, among others by Valerius Maximus, B. ix. cc. 2, 9, and by Ovid, Art. Am. B. i. ll. 653-4.—B.

344 See B. vii. c. 57.

345 Mentioned at the commencement of this Chapter.

346 A statuary of Ægina, mentioned also by Pausanias, B. v. c. 27, in connexion with Dionysius of Argos. He flourished about Olymp. 76.

347 Already mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 55, and previously in this Chapter.

348 "Scopas uterque." Sillig, Diet. Ancient Artists, expresses an opinion that these words are an interpolation; but in his last edition of Pliny, he thinks with M. Ian, that some words are wanting, expressive of the branch in which these artists excelled. See also B. xxxvi. cc. 5, 14.

349 He is previously mentioned in this Chapter. See p. 179.

350 An Athenian artist, son of Eubulides. He is also mentioned by Pausanias.

351 A Lacedæmonian artist, also mentioned by Pausanias.

352 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

353 Mentioned also by Pausanias, B. i. c. 3.

354 Probably not the Athenian statuary mentioned by Pausanias, B. ix. c. 7. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

355 A native of Phocis, mentioned also by Vitruvius.

356 Also a Dithyrambic poet; mentioned by Diodorus Siculus.

357 In B. xxxv. c. 36.

358 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

359 Mentioned by Tatian as having made the statue of Eutychis. See Pliny, B. vii. c. 3.

360 He executed a statue of Hephæstion; and an inscription relative to him is preserved by Wheler, Spon, and Chishull.

361 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

362 A native of Sardis; mentioned by Pausanias.

363 An Athenian, mentioned also by Pausanias.

364 Strabo mentions some of his productions in the Temple at Ephesus.

365 "Fritterer away of his works." He was also an engraver on gold, and a painter. He is spoken of in high terms by Vitruvius, Pausauias, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

366 We have an account of Cato's honourable conduct on this occasion in Plutarch.—B. See also B. xxix. c. 30.

367 "Inane exemplum." Hardouin thinks that this is said in reference to his neglect of the example set by his grandfather, Cato the Censor, who hated the Greeks. See B. vii. c. 31.

368 In the poisoned garment, which was the eventual cause of his death.—B.

369 The general who conducted the war against Mithridates.—B.

370 See B. xxxiii. c. 46. "Chaplet" copper.

371 "Bar" copper, or "malleable."

372 It is very improbable that this effect could be produced by the cause here assigned; but without a more detailed account of the process employed, we cannot explain the change of colour.—B.

373 πυρωπὸς, "sparkling like fire." Similar to, if not identical with, our tinsel.

374 "Cast brass."

375 See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 415. Bohn's Edition.

376 In the former Editions the whole of the next ten lines, from this word down to "sun" is omitted. It is evident that it has been left out by accident, in consequence of the recurrence of the word "Campano." The hiatus has been supplied from the Bamberg MS., and the reading is supported by the text of Isidorus, Orig. B. xvi. c. 20, s. 9.

377 "Collectanei."

378 "Formalis."

379 "Piumbi nigri"—"black lead," literally, but not what we mean by that name.

380 The "Grecian" colour. It does not appear to have been identified, nor does it appear what it has to do with moulds.

381 "Pot" copper, or brass.

382 Beckmann is of opinion that this "plumbum argentarium" was a mixture of equal parts of tin and lead. Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 220. Bohn's Edition.

383 Most of these preparations are in reality highly dangerous. Oxides, however, or salts of copper, have been employed internally with success, acting by alvine evacuation and by vomiting. The Crocus Veneris of the old chemists was an oxide of copper. It is still used by the peasants of Silesia, Ajasson says.

384 It is obvious that the "cadmia" here described must be an essentially different substance from the "cadmia" mentioned in the second Chapter of this Book, that being a natural production, possibly calamine or hydrosilicate or carbonate of zinc; while the "cadmia" of this Chapter is a furnace-calamine, a product of the fusion of the ore of copper, or zinc.—B. It is evident, too, that copper ores, impregnated with zinc or calamine, also passed under this name. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 33–35, Bohn's Edition, where this subject is discussed at considerable length: also the treatise by Delafosse, in Lemaire's Edition of Pliny.

385 The metal known to us as "cadmium" was discovered by Professor Stromeyer in 1818: it is either associated in its ores with zinc, or forms a native sulphuret.

386 "Smoky residue." None of these substances formed in smelting are preserved for medicinal purposes at the present day. Tutty is an impure oxide of zinc.

387 "Cluster residue." From its resemblance to a bunch of grapes.

388 "Caked residue."

389 "Shell-formed residue."

390 See B. xiv. c. 16.

391 See end of B. iii.

392 See end of B. xii.

393 We have the same account of the medicinal effects of Cadmia, and the other preparations mentioned in this Chapter, given by Dioscorides.—B.

394 For an account of the "alumen" of the ancients, see B. xxxv. c. 52.

395 See B. xxxiii. c. 21, and B. xxxvi. c. 13.

396 See B. xxxiii. c. 37.

397 "Æris flos." Ajasson makes some correct remarks upon the difference between the "scoria" and the "flower" of the metal. The former may be considered as consisting of the metal, mixed with a certain proportion of heterogeneous matter, which has been separated during the fusion of the ore, while the latter consists of the pure metal in a state of mechanical division.—B.

398 From the Greek λεπὶς, "husk," or "scale,"

399 Ajasson describes this substance as consisting merely of the pure metal in a state of minute mechanical division; it would appear, therefore, to be scarcely, if at all, different from the articles described in the last Chapter. The word στόμωμα means a "hard substance," or "hard scales," therefore the application of this term to a substance like down, "lanugo," is perhaps not very appropriate.—B.

400 Beckmann comments at some length on this passage; Vol. I. p. 328. Bohn's Edition.

401 "Seplasiæ." The druggists dwelling in the Seplasia. See B. xxxiii. c. 58.

402 In Chapters 22 and 23, as applied to Cadmia and Cyprian copper, respectively.—B.

403 "Ærugo." The researches of modern chemists have ascertained the composition of verdigris to be a diacetete of copper; the sesquibasic acetate and the triacetate are also to be considered as varieties of this substance; we have an exact analysis of these salts in the "Elements" of the late Dr. Turner, the Sixth Edition, edited by Professor Liebig and Mr. W. Turner, pp. 931, 2. Most of the processes described in this Chapter are mentioned by Dioscorides.—B. See also Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 171, et seq., Bohn's Edition.

404 According to Brotero, this is the process generally adopted in France, in preference to the employment of vinegar in a pure state.—B.

405 The form of copper which was termed "coronarium" has been already described in Chapter 22.—B.

406 "Atramento sutorio." "Shoemakers' black." See Chapters 27 and 32 of this Book.

407 Until it assumes an ashy colour, Dioscorides says.—B.

408 See B. xii. cc. 30, 32.

409 According to Celsus, this substance obtained its name from the person who invented or compounded it; he calls it "Collyrium of Hierax."—B.

410 "Atramenti sutorii, quod chalcanthum vocant." We may presume that this substance was somewhat different from the "atramentum sutorium" mentioned in the last Chapter: the word "chalcanthum" means "flower of copper;" χαλκοῦ ἄνθος.—B. Delafosse identifies it with blue vitriol, sulphate, or hydro-trisulphate of copper. See Chapter 32.

411 See Chapter 31.

412 From the Greek σκωλὴξ, "a worm," "Vermicular Verdigris."— "The accounts of this substance in ancient authors seem to some commentators to be obscure; but in my opinion we are to understand by them that the ingredients were pounded together till the paste they formed assumed the appearance of pieces or threads like worms. For the same reason the Italians give the name of vermicelli to wire-drawn paste of flour used in cookery."—Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 173, Bohn's Edition.

413 In B. xxxiii. c. 29—B.

414 The name, no doubt, of a copper ore which has not been identified. Delafosse suggests that it may have been an ore of iron and copper pyrites in combination with a silky copper malachite. See Chapter 2 of this Book, and B. xxxv. c. 52.

415 Brongniart is of opinion that the "sory" of Pliny is the sulphate of copper, probably with an excess of acid. He informs us that he has received a specimen of a native sulphate of copper from Cuença, in Spain, which possesses all the characteristics of "sory" as here described. He considers it more difficult to ascertain the chemical composition of "misy," but is disposed to consider it as a mixed sulphate of iron and copper.—B.

416 In the next two Chapters.—B.

417 We have a similar account of its medicinal virtues given us by Dioscorides; Celsus also enumerates chalcitis among the corrosives, or cauteries, "quæ exedunt corpus." He also recommends it for affections of the eyes.—B.

418 "Sore ointment."

419 See Note 15 above.

420 See Note 15 above. Hardouin calls this substance "yellow copperas," or "Roman vitriol."

421 "In scrobibus." The mineral alluded to is Chalcitis, mentioned in Chapter 29.—B.

422 χαλκοῦ ἄνθος. "Flower of copper."—B.

423 "Atramentum sutorium." It was thus called from its being used for colouring leather. Under this name he probably includes green vitriol, or sulphate of the protoxide of iron, and blue vitriol, or sulphate, and hydro-trisulphate of copper, the former of which is, properly, our copperas. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 181, et. seq. Bohn's Edition. See also Note 10 above.

424 In reality, the "chalcanthum" of Dioscorides was the small scales separated from molten copper by the application of water. See Chapters 24 and 25 above.

425 Of this kind, probably. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 182.

426 From this vitreous appearance of the crystals of vitriol, it is most probable that vitriol derives its name. See Beckmann, Vol. I. p. 184.

427 " Drop," or "globule" chalcanthum.

428 Possibly a corruption of "leucoion," "violet white."

429 He has described the mode of procuring salt, by evaporating the brine in shallow pits, in B. xxxi. c. 39.—B.

430 It is difficult to ascertain the exact nature of the substances treated of in this Chapter. Ajasson has some judicious remarks upon them, in which he points out what appear to be inconsistencies in the account given of them, and of their relation to each other.—B. Ajasson says that there is no doubt that a mammose or terreous carbonate of copper is meant under these names. These substances are no longer known, but our tutty, or impure oxide of zinc, bears some resemblance to them.

431 See B. xix. c. 4, and Chapters 34 and 52 of this Book.

432 A Greek word, signifying "ashes," or the residuum after combustion.—B.

433 From the corresponding passage in Dioscorides, there is some doubt whether the account of this process here given is correct.—B.

434 So called from Laurium, a district in Attica, in which there were silver mines. See Pausanias, B. i.—B.

435 Meaning "Substitute for spodos."

436 See B. xxiii. cc. 38, 63.

437 See B. xxi. c. 26, and B. xvi. c. 20.

438 See B. xxi. c. 95.

439 See B. xi. c. 94.—B.

440 " Detersive composition."

441 From δὶς φρυγέσθαι.—" being twice calcined."—B.

442 The Scoriæ, Cadmia, and Flos, which are described in Chapters 22, 23 and 24.—B.

443 A Roman coin, equal to the third part of the "as."—B.

444 We most fully coincide with Pliny in this sentiment, but we are constrained to differ from him in giving credit to the alleged fact, as he appears to have done.—B.

445 See the list of authors at the end of this Book.

446 " Arbusta:" trees on which vines were trained. See B. xvii. c. 35.

447 Holland has the following Note upon this passage: "O Pliny, what wouldst thou say, if thou didst see and hear the pistols, muskets, culverines, and cannons in these days." Vol. II. p. 513.—B.

448 The charge that death is always the work of Nature.—B.

449 Or "stylus."

450 See Ovid, Metam. B. iv. 1. 467, et seq.; and Fasti, B. vi. 1. 489, et seq.—B.

451 An artist mentioned also by Ovid and Pausanias.—B. And by Virgil.

452 " Mars Ultor." In the Forum of Augustus, in the Eighth Region of the City.

453 The Isle of Elba, which has been celebrated for the extent and the richness of its iron mines both by the ancients and the moderns.—B. Ajasson remarks that it appears to be a solid rock composed of peroxide of iron.

454 " Clavis caligariis." See B. viii. c. 44, B. ix. c. 33, and B. xxii. c. 46.

455 There have been numerous opinions on the meaning of this word, and its signification is very doubtful. Beckmann has the following remarks in reference to this passage:—"In my opinion, this was the name given to pieces of steel completely manufactured and brought to that state which rendered them fit for commerce. At present steel comes from Biscay in cakes, from other places in bars, and both these were formerly called 'stricturæ,' because they were employed chiefly for giving sharpness to instruments, or tools, that is, for steeling them. In speaking of other metals, Pliny says that the finished productions at the works were not called 'stricturæ' (the case, for example, with copper), though sharpness could be given to instruments with other metals also. The words of Pliny just quoted are read different ways, and still remain obscure. I conjecture that he meant to say, that some steel-works produced things which were entirely of steel, and that others were employed only in steeling—'ad densandas incudes malleorumve rostra.' I shall here remark that these 'stricturæ ferri' remind us of the ' striges auri,' (see B. xxxiii. c. 19), such being the name given to native pieces of gold, which, without being smelted, were used in commerce."—Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 327. Bohn's Edition.

456 " A stringenda acie." The iron was probably formed into thin, long bars, in thickness resembling a steel used for sharpening. The French word acier, meaning "steel," may possibly come from the Latin " acies"—" edge," as Beckmann has suggested.

457 Situate at the spot now known as "Bambola," near Calatayud. The river Salo ran near it, the waters of which, as here mentioned, were celebrated for their power of tempering steel. The poet Martial was a native of this place.

458 Supposed to be the modern Tarragona.

459 See B. iii. c. 21.

460 See B. vi. cc. 20-24, B. vii. c. 2, and B. xii. cc. 1, 41. This Seric iron has not been identified. Ctesias, as quoted by Photius, mentions Indian iron. See Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 228. Bohn's Edition.

461 Thought by Beckmann, quoting from Bottiger, possibly to bear reference to a transfer trade of furs, through Serica, from the North of Asia. See Vol. II. p. 307. As to the Seric tisssues, see B. xxxvii. c. 77.

462 Or "Persian." The steel of Damascus had in the middle ages a high reputation.

463 See B. iii. cc. 24, 27. Horace speaks of the "Norican sword" on two occasions.—B.

464 See B. iii. cc. 9, 17.

465 See B. xviii. c. 67, and B. xxxvi. c. 38.

466 B. xxxvi. c. 25.

467 Properly "bubbles," or "beads."

468 See B. xxxvi. c. 66. In the account of the loadstone referred to above, he informs us that this mineral was employed in the formation of glass.—B. Beckmann is of opinion that Manganese is here alluded to. See Vol. II. p. 237.

469 Another reading is "Dinochares," or "Dinocrates," for an account of whom, see B. v. c. 11, and B. vii. c. 38.

470 Wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. See B. vi. c. 33, and B. xxxvi. c. 14.

471 Some accounts state that the statue was to be of brass, and the head of iron. It is said that the same thing was attempted with respect to the statue of Mahomet, in his tomb at Medina.—B.

472 We learn from Bowles that the celebrated mine of Sommorostro is still worked for this metal.

473 See B. iv. c. 34.—B.

474 Both the reading and the meaning of this passage are very doubtful.

475 See B. v. c. 21.—B.

476 We may presume that Pliny supposed that the ancient links had been protected by some of the substances mentioned above, although this is not distinctly stated.—B. Or rather by some religious ceremony as above alluded to.

477 "Nocturnas lymphationes."—B.

478 The actual cautery, as it is termed, is occasionally employed, in certain diseases, by the moderns, but I am not aware that it has been tried in hydrophobia.—B. This precaution is sometimes used by country practitioners, at all events.

479 I cannot agree with Delafosse in his remark that "this remedy also is much in use for cœliac and other affections at the present day."—B. It is still recommended by old women in the country, for children more particularly.

480 There are two versions of this story. In B. xxv. c. 19, Pliny says that Achilles cured Telephus by the application of a plant, which from him received its name. According to the other account, the oracle had declared, that the wound of Telephus, which had been inflicted by Achilles, could only be cured by means of the same weapon which had caused it.—B.

481 All the statements in this Chapter are to be found in Dioscorides, B. v. c. 93.—B.

482 The scaly excrescences beaten from iron in the forges, Hardouin says.—B.

483 From the Greek ὕγρον πλαστρὸν.—B.

484 See B. xxxv. c. 57.—B.

485 It is most probable that the "black lead" of Pliny was our lead, and the "white lead" our tin. Beckmann has considered these Chapters at great length, Vol. II. p. 209, et seq. Bohn's Edition.

486 Supposed to have been derived from the Oriental word Kastîra.

487 What is here adduced as a fabulous narrative is not very remote from the truth; the Scilly Isles and Cornwall being the principal sources of the tin now employed in Europe. Small boats, corresponding to the description here given, were very lately still in use among the inhabitants of some parts of the south-west coast of England [and on the Severn]. Pliny has already spoken of these boats in B. vii. c. 57.—B. See also B. iv. c. 30, as to the coracles of the ancient Britons.

488 The ores of tin are known to exist in Gallicia; but the mines in that country are very scanty compared to those of Cornwall.—B.

489 "Talutium" is mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 21.

490 Tin ore is among the heaviest of minerals, though the specific gravity of the metal is small. M. Hæfer is of opinion that these pebbles contained platinum.

491 Or tin. The greater fusibility of the tin producing this separation.—B.

492 We may conclude that the "plumbum nigrum," or "black lead" of Pliny is the Galena or sulphuret of lead of the moderns; it is frequently what is termed argentiferous, i. e. united with an ore of silver, and this in such quantity as to cause it to be worked for the purpose of procuring the silver.—B. See Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 210.

493 "Instead of oil, workmen use at present 'colophonium,' or some other resin."—Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 223. See also B. xxxiii. c. 20.

494 Iliad, xi. 25, and xxiii. 561.—B.

495 Ajasson considers this to be Bismuth; but it is more probable that Beckmann is right in his conclusion, supported by Agricola, Entzel, Fallopius, Savot, Bernia, and Jung, that it was a compound metal, the Werk of the German smelting houses: a metal not much unlike our pewter, probably. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 209, 212, 224. Bohn's Edition.

496 See B. xxxiii. c. 31, and c. 53 of this Book.

497 A compound metal, probably, somewhat like pewter. See Note 95 above. He evidently alludes to the process of "tinning."

498 In B. xxxiii. c. 45: where he says that the best mirrors were formerly made of a mixture of stannum and copper.—B. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 60–62, 72.

499 Or tin.

500 "Silver mixture."

501 Such a mixture as this would in reality become more valuable than "argentarium," as the proportion would be two-thirds of tin and one of lead. How then could the workmen merit the title of dishonest? Beckmann suggests that the tinning ought to have been done with pure tin, but that unprincipled artists employed tin mixed with lead. It is most probable, however, that Pliny himself has made a mistake, and that we should read "equal parts of black lead" (our lead); in which case the mixture passed off as "argentarium," instead of containing equal parts of tin and lead, would contain five-sixths of lead. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 221. Bohn's Edition.

502 All these readings are doubtful in the extreme.

503 As being too brittle, probably; the reason suggested by Beckmann, Vol. II. p. 221.

504 Literally, "inboiled," being coated by immersion in the molten tin.

505 Supposed by Hardouin to have been the town of Alise, in Auxois.

506 See B. iv. c. 33.

507 The names of various kinds of carriages, the form of which is now unknown.

508 Both tin and lead can be fused in paper, when it is closely wrapped around them.

509 In reality India did and does possess them both; but it is possible that in those days it was not considered worth while to search for them.

510 The "lead" of the moderns.

511 Mr. T. Wright, the eminent antiquarian, is of opinion that the extensive Roman lead mines at Shelve, in Shropshire, are here alluded to. See the Illustrated London News, Oct. 4, 1856.

512 Probably from Ovetum, the modern Oviedo.—B.

513 So called from the island of Capraria. See B. iii. cc. 11, 12, and B. vi. c. 37.

514 See B. iii c 12.

515 Not in Bætica, as Brotero remarks, but in Lusitania, or Portugal; the modern Santarem.—B.

516 See Introduction to Vol. III.

517 This circumstance is mentioned by Suetonius, c. 20.—B.

518 Hardouin observes, that these insects are never met with in mines; but probably this may depend more upon other causes, than upon the vapours which are supposed to proceed from the metals.—B.

519 See B. xxxiii. cc. 33, 34.

520 See B. xx. c. 81, and B. xxiv. c. 73.

521 "Charta." See B. xxiv. c. 51.

522 This, according to Ajasson, is the protoxide, or probably, in some cases, the arseniate of lead.—B.

523 From σποδὸς, "ashes."—B.

524 See Chapter 34 of this Book.—B.

525 This was probably lead ore in its primary state, when only separated from the stannum, and before it was subjected to fusion for the purpose of obtaining pure lead.—See Beckmann's Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 211. Bohn's Edition. Ajasson identifies it with litharge, or fused oxide of lead, known as gold and silver litharge, from its colour.

526 See B. xxxiii. c. 31, and Chapter 47 of this Book.—B.

527 In Cilicia: see B. v. c. 22. He is speaking, no doubt, of the "metallic," or artificial kind.

528 A kind of ointment. See B. xxiii. c. 81, and B. xxxiii. c. 35.

529 Our Litharge. See B. xxxiii. c. 35.

530 According to Ajasson, this substance is properly a sub-carbonate of lead, commonly called white lead.—B.

531 Scoria of lead and molybdæna.—B.

532 Preparations of lead are still used in cosmetics for whitening the complexion.

533 The Realgar of the moderns, red orpiment, or red sulphuret of arsenic. Pliny has in numerous places spoken of it as a remedy for certain morbid states both of animals and vegetables, B. xvii. c. 47, B. xxiii. c. 13, B. xxv. c. 22, and B. xxviii. c. 62, but he has not previously given any account of its origin and composition.—B.

534 Dioscorides, B. v. c. 122, informs us, with respect to this effect of sandarach, that it was burned in combination with resin, and that the smoke was inhaled through a tube.—B.

535 The substance here mentioned, though its name is the foundation of our word "arsenic," is not the arsenic of modern commerce, but probably a sulphuret of arsenic containing a less proportion of sulphur than the Sandarach of the last Chapter.—B.

536 The other two mentioned species naturally divide into laminæ, while this kind is disposed to separate into fine fibres.—B.

537 By this process a considerable portion of the sulphur is expelled, so as to cause the orpiment to approximate to the state of arsenic.—B.

538 See end of B. ii.

539 See end of B. ii.

540 See end of B. iii.

541 See end of B. ii.

542 See end of B. ii.

543 A different person from the Messala mentioned at the end of B. ix. He is mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 14, B. xxxv. c. 2, and in Chapter 38 of this Book; but nothing further seems to be known of him.

544 See end of B. vii. and Note 94 to B. vii. c. 53.

545 Domitius Marsus, a poet of the Augustan age, of whom few particulars are known, except that he wrote an epitaph on the poet Tibullus, who died B.C. 18. He is mentioned by Ovid and Martial, from the latter of whom we learn that his epigrams were distinguished for their wit, licentiousness, and satire.

546 See end of B. xvi.

547 See end of B. xx.

548 See end of B. xii.

549 See end of B. vii.

550 See end of B. ii.

551 See end of B. iii.

552 See end of B. iv.

553 See c. 19 of this Book, Note 11, page 184.

554 See end of B. xxxiii.

555 See end of B. vii.

556 See end of B. xxxiii.

557 See end of B. xxxiii.

558 See end of B. xxxiii.

559 See end of B. iii.

560 See end of B. xii.

561 See end of Books iv., viii., xi., and xx.

562 See end of B. xx.

563 See end of Books iv., and xii.

564 See end of B. xii.

565 See end of B. xiii.

566 See end of B. xii.

567 See end of B. xii.

568 See end of B. xxix.

569 See end of B. xii.

570 See end of B. xii.

571 See end of B. xxxiii.

572 See end of B. xxxiii.

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